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PC Agenda Packet 2019-12-11 MEETING AGENDA PLANNING COMMISSION 321 East Fifth Street December 11, 2019 6:00 p.m. I. CALL TO ORDER II. ROLL CALL III. PUBLIC COMMENT IV. ACTION/DISCUSSION ITEMS/OTHER BUSINESS 1. Discussion Item: Climate Action Plan Subcommittee Logistics Review of other city’s plans and discussion on how to move forward V. ADJOURNMENT ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐38 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  Environment & Conservation Introduction Anacortes is blessed with an abundance of natural beauty.  Residents identify  marine shorelines, streams, lakes, forested areas, and other natural features as  defining features of the City.  Preservation of these natural features is  identified the community as an important priority.  This policy is expressed  through the goals and polices that support environmental stewardship,  protection of habitat areas, and preservation of surface and groundwater  quality.  The Environment & Conservation Element addresses numerous sustainability  and healthy community goals and policies, including air quality, water quality,  tree cover, and sustainable development practices.   The Environment and Conservation Element Supporting Analysis/Background  Information contains the background data and analysis for this element.  Goals & Policies Goal EC-1. Environmental protection. Serve as a leader in environmental stewardship of the natural environment for current and future generations. Policy EC‐1.1.  Recognize the inter‐relationship of natural systems, people and  the economy and promote integrated and interdisciplinary approaches for  environmental planning and assessment.    Policy EC‐1.2.  Work cooperatively with local, state, regional and federal  governments and community organizations to protect and enhance the  environment.  Encourage participation in local and national organizations such  as Tree City USA.   Policy EC‐1.3.  Promote and lead public education and involvement programs  to raise public awareness about and involvement in environmental issues,  advocate respect for the environment and demonstrate how individual actions  and the cumulative effect of a community’s actions can have significant effects  on the environment.   A. Establish and promote an ongoing volunteer program in and out of our  schools aimed at educating residents and visitors with speakers, programs  and written information.  This program shall promote stewardship of  Fidalgo Island.   B. Develop and implement a program aimed specifically at reduction of litter  and other nuisances.   12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 1 ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐39 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  C. Support and encourage citizen involvement in backyard wildlife habitat  programs, forest education programs, tree preservation, and shoreline  stewardship programs.   D. Water conservation and water recycling shall be high priorities in the  City’s Water System Plan.   E. Maintain a continually updated list of City, County and State planning,  environmental and development documents at City Hall and the  Anacortes Public Library for public review.   F. Publish and make available information to help private property owners  maintain property in its historic or undeveloped state, such as tax  benefits, the Nature Conservancy, Skagit Land Trust, City Historic  Preservation Board saleback and leaseback, property donation, property  exchange, cluster development, and transferrable development rights.   G. Implement the educational provisions of the Critical Areas Ordinance.   Policy EC‐1.4.  Actively work with local, regional, and state agencies and  private entities, to acquire larger tracts of key open lands in the region,  including through such programs as transfer of development rights (TDR).   Policy EC‐1.5.  Identify/inventory areas of aesthetic, educational, historical,  cultural and/or biological significance, encourage their preservation, and  regulate development which could cause significant deterioration of these  qualities.   Policy EC‐1.6.  Provide opportunities for residents to have access to  undeveloped natural areas where appropriate.   Goal EC-2. Marine waters and shorelines. Enhance and preserve the City’s shoreline areas and marine resources while accommodating uses reasonable and appropriate to shorelines. Policy EC‐2.1.  Adhere to the goals and policies outlined in the City of  Anacortes Shoreline Master Program (ASMP).   Policy EC‐2.2.  Maintain, enhance and increase the public’s physical and visual  access to shorelines and tidelands.    Policy EC‐2.3.  Develop a recreational and wildlife corridor along the Guemes  Channel with links to other natural areas including ACFL, Ship Harbor, and  Washington Park.   Policy EC‐2.4.  Work to preserve and restore forage fish spawning areas as  shown in the Fidalgo Bay Sub‐Area Plan and its restoration element.   Policy EC‐2.5.  Water dependent and water related uses should be allowed to  continue to locate and expand in industrial, commercial, and commercial  marine zones.   Policy EC‐2.6.  Soft armoring of shorelines is generally preferred over riprap or  hard armoring.  Policy EC‐2.7.  Plan to implement shoreline restoration and enhancement  projects where natural shorelines have been altered.   Policy EC‐2.8.  City owned right of ways or street ends that afford access to, or  views of, marine shorelines should be evaluated for suitability of street end  parks and wildlife corridors, and the vacation of such should be avoided in  12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 2 ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐40 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  most cases.  Those street ends which lend themselves to park use should be  considered for development as such.  The City street vacation policy shall  reflect this intent.  Goal EC-3. Natural hazards. Protect people, property and the environment in areas of natural hazards. Policy EC‐3.1.  Protect, and where possible, enhance or restore existing  shoreline and other flood‐prone areas.   Policy EC‐3.2.  When development occurs within the 100‐year floodplain, seek  to minimize risk to people, property and the environment.   Policy EC‐3.3.  Promote soil stability through retention of existing vegetation.  Policy EC‐3.4.  Manage development in erosion hazard areas to minimize  erosion.   Policy EC‐3.5.  Avoid potential impacts to life and property by strictly limiting  land disturbance and development in landslide hard areas.   Policy EC‐3.6.  Support and promote seismic hazard preparedness efforts.   Policy EC‐3.7.  Reduce the City’s exposure to landslides, tsunamis,  earthquakes; minimize reliance on federal and state programs for disaster  mitigation; and protect public and private property, save lives, and use  community resources wisely.  Policy EC‐3.8.  Integrate regulatory standards such as buffers and setbacks  with hazard avoidance measures.   Policy EC‐3.9.  Coordinate hazard vulnerability assessments with programs for  purchase or preservation of open space.   Policy EC‐3.10.  Update hazard mitigation and disaster plans a minimum of  every five years as a joint effort with Skagit County in coordination with local  agencies.   Policy EC‐3.11.  Coordinate related activities of City departments with the  County, State, and Federal agencies.   Policy EC‐3.12.  Continue to compile and revise mapping of vulnerable areas by  using City, County, State, and Federal databases.  As additional surveying and  other data collection is produced for infrastructure improvements, integrate  this information into the mapping system.  Update mapped hazard  designations based on “real world” information as it becomes available.    Policy EC‐3.13.  Revise the Zoning, Subdivision, Critical areas regulations and  the regulations portion of the Shoreline Master Program to incorporate hazard  avoidance provisions and assure consistency of definitions and mapping.  Policy EC‐3.14.  Continue to update and maintain the City’s GIS database  inventory of city infrastructure.   Policy EC‐3.15.  Support public outreach programs to ensure the citizenry is  aware of potential natural hazards and emergency procedures that are in  place.    12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 3 ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐41 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  Goal EC-4. Water quality. Protect and enhance water quality. Policy EC‐4.1.  Work with neighboring jurisdictions and other partners to  maintain and restore natural hydrological functions on a drainage basin level.  Policy EC‐4.2.  Promote the sustainable use of water resources, including  conservation efforts.   Policy EC‐4.3.  Prevent pollution of surface and groundwater resources  through regulations, programs and public education.   Policy EC‐4.4.  Conduct regular inspections and maintenance of City sewer  infrastructure according to public works policies to minimize impacts to  surface and groundwater.  Policy EC‐4.5.  Require new development to utilize stormwater best  management practices, such as low impact development and other natural  drainage techniques.   Policy EC‐4.6.  Strive to minimize impervious surfaces in the City.   Policy EC‐4.7.  Encourage the proper use and maintenance of existing on‐site  septic systems and encourage connection to sanitary sewer whenever  possible.   Policy EC‐4.8.  Protect and preserve areas that are critical for aquifer recharge,  such as wetlands, streams and water bodies.   Policy EC‐4.9.  Strive for “no net loss” of wetland acreage, function and value  within each drainage basin over the long term.   EC-5. Fish & Wildlife. Protect and enhance fish and wildlife habitat. Policy EC‐5.1.  Identify, plan for and preserve habitat areas, including wildlife  corridors and areas with healthy native ecosystems, through development  regulations and as part of the Parks, Open Space and Recreation Plan.   Policy EC‐5.2.  Participate in regional species protection efforts, including  salmon habitat protection and restoration.    Policy EC‐5.3.  Encourage the removal of invasive species and the replanting of  natural vegetation.   Policy EC‐5.4.  With the exception of habitat improvements, stream alterations  should only occur when absolutely necessary and should minimize adverse  impacts to aquatic life.   EC-6. Surface water. Maintain or improve the functional integrity of water-courses, wetlands, bodies of water and their shores by keeping them in their existing natural condition where appropriate or restoring them as appropriate. Policy EC‐6.1.  Streams and wetlands should be examined in a basin‐wide  approach before adjustments to the system are considered.    12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 4 ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐42 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  Policy EC‐6.2.  Significant fills and excavations, which by their nature affect  both surface and groundwater dynamics and habitat, shall be allowed only by  permit process.   Policy EC‐6.3.  Inventory all significant drainage patterns and make this  information available to City planners and residents.   Policy EC‐6.4.  Place appropriate restrictions on land surface modifications and  tree removal that would cause unnecessary landscape scarring, hydrology  modifications, erosion, or undermining of support of nearby land, including,  but  not limited to, dredging, filling, clearing, paving, and grading.   EC-7. Trees. Recognize the importance of mature trees as an integral part of the ecology and heritage of the city. Policy EC‐7.1.  Retention of mature trees should be an essential consideration  in project development and building plans.   Policy EC‐7.2.  Encourage regulations which assist in preserving trees and  develop regulatory penalties for unauthorized tree removal.    Policy EC‐7.3.  Education practices will encourage the planting and retention of  trees.   Policy EC‐7.4.  Maintain and enhance a street tree maintenance program on  arterial streets and City–owned trees.   Policy EC‐7.5.  Encourage community residents and property owners to  preserve the tree canopy within existing neighborhoods.   Policy EC‐7.6.  Consider allowing off‐site options for replanting and restoration  in order to meet tree retention requirements and achieve tree canopy  coverage.   EC-8. Sustainability. Increase the sustainability and efficiency of building practices in Anacortes. Policy EC‐8.1.  Energy conservation shall be a goal in the design or remodeling  of commercial, public and residential building.   Policy EC‐8.2.  Promote the use of environmentally friendly construction  practices, such as those specified under certification systems such as  Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), __________.   Policy EC‐8.3.  Consider developing incentives for construction or remodeling  of structures to utilize state of the art energy conservation techniques  (including, but not limited to, insulation, passive energy design, co‐generation).   Policy EC‐8.4.  Encourage projects that utilize green energy strategies and  innovative approaches to conserving resources by providing incentives such as  flexibility in meeting regulatory requirements.   Policy EC‐8.5.  Promote sustainable building management and maintenance  practices.   Policy EC‐8.6.  Encourage conversion of existing low‐efficiency building stock to  cost‐effective and environmentally sensitive alternative technologies and  energy sources.   12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 5 ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐43 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  Policy EC‐8.7.  Continue to adopt the latest energy codes.   Policy EC‐8.8. Work with Puget Sound Energy to encourage conservation in  street lighting and other public and private uses and supp ort programs that  encourage renewable energy production.   Policy EC‐8.9.  Become a leader in innovative energy efficiency and reduction  strategies through support and implementation of programs such as the City of  Anacortes Community Energy Plan.   Goal EC-9. Air quality. Policy EC‐9.1.  Promote compliance with federal and state air pollution control  laws and improvements to regional air quality in cooperation with the  Northwest Clean Air Agency.   Policy EC‐9.2.  Maintain high air quality through land use and transportation  planning and management.   Policy EC‐9.3.  Reduce the amount of airborne particulates through a street  sweeping program, dust abatement on construction sites, covered loads of  hauled materials, and other methods to reduce dust sources.   Goal EC-10. Noise. Policy EC‐10.1.  Maintain noise regulations to limit noise to levels that protect  the public health and that allow residential, commercial, industrial and  manufacturing areas to be used for their intended purposes.   Policy EC‐10‐.2.  Ensure that mixed‐use developments are designed and  operated to minimize noise impacts.  Measures may include provisions  controlling uses, design and construction measures, and timing requirements.  Policy EC‐10.3.  Require buffering or other noise reduction and mitigation  measures to reduce noise impacts from Commercial and Industrial zones on  residential areas.   Goal EC-11. Light Pollution. Reduce light pollution. Policy EC‐11.1.  Minimize and manage ambient light levels to protect the  integrity of ecological systems and public health without compromising public  safety and cultural expression.   Policy EC‐11.2.  Design and construct night lighting to minimize glare and to  avoid spillover onto nearby properties.   Policy EC‐11.3.  Minimize overhead lighting that would shine on the water  surface of the City’s shorelines or streams.  Encourage the use of pedestrian  level or shaded lighting when providing lighting along the Tommy Thompson  and Guemes Channel Trail.   Policy EC‐11.4.  Establish design standards and other regulations, where  appropriate, that employ “dark skies” approaches.   EC- 12. Food security. Promote a resilient local food system. Policy EC‐12.1.  Support efforts to identify vulnerabilities and formulate  strategies to increase food resilience.   12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 6 ANACORTES 2016 COMPREHENSIVE PLAN – FIRST DRAFT  MAKERS architecture and urban design  Page I‐44 Vol 1_draft_11022015 - 11/2/15  Policy EC‐12.2.  Support community workshops and educational programs  regarding local food production.   Policy EC‐12.3.  Promote increased access to locally‐grown foods by providing  space for community gardens, encouraging backyard gardens, and encouraging  the location of fresh food markets and community food gardens in close  proximity to multifamily uses and transit facilities.   EC-13. Climate Change. Anacortes should be a regional leader in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Policy EC‐13.1.  Support local community and multi‐jurisdictional efforts to  raise awareness, address the impacts of, and develop solutions to the  challenges of climate change.  Policy EC‐13.2.  Consider a multi‐pronged approach to climate change  adaptation and mitigation, including support for energy efficiency (Anacortes  Community Energy Plan), promotion of “green energy”, vehicle trip reduction,  and environmental protection.  Policy EC‐13.3.  Advocate for administrative practices, land use patterns,  transportation systems, and building practices that will reduce greenhouse gas  emissions.    Policy EC‐13.4.  Initiate efforts to identify potential local climate change  impacts on built, natural and human systems and conduct a vulnerability  assessment.   Policy EC‐13.5.  Promote community resiliency through the development of  climate change adaptation strategies.   Policy EC‐13.6.  Recognize that the information surrounding climate change is  constantly evolving and track the best available science to use for planning  purposes.   Policy EC‐13.7.  Consider climate change impacts when conducting review of  proposed land use and transportation actions and programs.   Policy EC‐13.8.  Support local community efforts to raise awareness and  develop solutions to the challenges of climate change.    12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 7 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 8 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 9 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 10 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 11 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 12 Lara J. Hansen, Ph.D., EcoAdapt Stacey Justus Nordgren, M.A., Foresight Partners Consulting Eric E. Mielbrecht, M.S., EcoAdapt Bainbridge Island, WA ~ 2016 www.EcoAdapt.org Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 13 Acknowledgements: EcoAdapt would like to thank the Bainbridge Community Foundation for their generous support and belief in the importance of this project. We are also grateful to Sustainable Bainbridge and the City of Bainbridge Island staff, City Council and Planning Commission for their partnership in conducting the community elicitation workshop in November 2015. Thanks to the 54 community members who participated in that workshop, sharing their time, wisdom and ideas to make the Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment more informed. This Assessment would also not be what it is were it not for our reviewers Michael Cox and Cami Apfelbeck. Finally, we dedicate this report to the past, current and future members of the Bainbridge Island community. Our aim is that the Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment will sustain the legacy of our past, challenge the imagination of our present and foster the survival of our future. Preferred citation: Hansen, L.J., S.J. Nordgren and E.E. Mielbrecht. 2016. Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment. EcoAdapt, Bainbridge Island, WA. Cover photo credit: Lara Hansen Mitigation and Adaptation There are essential roles for both climate mitigation and adaptation strategies in Bainbridge Island’s actions relating to climate change, including in our Comprehensive Plan. “Mitigation responses aim to reduce the rate and extent of climatic change caused by greenhouse gas emissions, while adaptation responses address the effects of climate change by increasing resilience and/or decreasing vulnerability. Combined, these two approaches create a comprehensive, integrated strategy for addressing climate change.” (Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy 2015) Mitigation can be achieved through approaches such as higher-density development, reducing vehicle miles traveled, non-motorized transit, green building techniques, and renewable energy sourcing. Adaptation addresses the effects of climate change (including sea level rise, altered precipitation pattern with related flood and drought, increasing temperature) through approaches such as low-impact development; climate certified zoning, permitting & procurement; and climate-savvy hazard mitigation. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 14 i Executive Summary Why does Bainbridge Island need a Climate Impact Assessment? By explicitly considering climate change in local planning and decision-making, Bainbridge Island will be on a path to a resilient future. These actions must start today as the decisions currently being made will set the stage for our ability to respond in the future. The broader vision and hope for this Climate Impact Assessment is that the guidance contained herein will enable the City of Bainbridge Island (COBI) to effectively adapt to the implications of a changing climate in the coming decades. Communities need to know how to begin planning for climate change. One guiding premise of this Assessment is that: Communities can make good decisions when they have information and know what questions to ask. Let’s break that down. Communities: That means all community members, not just City Council members, not just City department staff, but every member of the community in whatever their capacity — teacher, retailer, physician, developer, emergency service provider, landscaper, student, you name it. Good decisions: Good decisions are the ones that get you to good outcomes now and into the future. They don’t trade short-term gains for long-term problems. They demonstrate prudent use of community time and money in order to achieve community benefit and meet our collective goals. Information: This means not just reflecting on what you want or what you think, but doing research to learn what is the state of knowledge and analysis to determine how that knowledge applies to local conditions and goals. Questions: Sometimes the best place for a community to use information is by asking the questions that will illuminate the path to a good decision. The Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment (BICIA) is a resource to guide the community to the relevant and applied information to help us ask the questions that will lead us to climate-informed decisions. Users of the BICIA should be able to find pertinent climate information, formulate questions to help them evaluate the implications of climate change for their own work or interests, and make climate-savvy decisions that will generate the best long-term outcomes for our community — its businesses, schools, services, recreation, ecosystems and individuals. What is within this Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment (BICIA)? Using the framework of local comprehensive planning, the Washington State Comprehensive Plan requirements, and the existing 2004 Bainbridge Island Comprehensive Plan, which is actively undergoing an update and review by the City, this Climate Impact Assessment was developed to enable the understanding and inclusion of anticipated climate change impacts into the local long-range planning by Bainbridge Island government officials and citizens. This Assessment is presented in three main sections: 1. Impacts of Climate Change for Bainbridge Island. This report summarizes the climate change impacts expected to affect Bainbridge Island in terms of six impact areas: temperature, precipitation/storminess, sea level rise, vegetation change, ocean acidification and slope stability. Table 1, Climate Change Implications for Comprehensive Plan Elements, identifies the impacts of each of these six areas on the element areas within the City’s Comprehensive Plan. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 15 ii There will always be uncertainty in climate information, however this should not stop or delay action. Climate change will alter the circumstances upon which everyone makes decisions; to continue making durable and resilient choices one needs to overlay the expected impacts onto an issue area, determine what the implications of climate change will be, and then to act in a way that will allow for durable and resilient choices, development and investment. 2. Climate Change Implications for Various Areas of Interest. Climate adaptation planning requires one to understand how climate change will impact the baseline information used to make decisions within any area of expertise. Then, to understand how that baseline information will change over time. Lastly, in order to adapt to climate change local government officials and others need to accommodate that change in their planning, permitting, and fiscal decision- making. This section of the Assessment is organized by Comprehensive Plan element. It provides details about each climate impact and how it will have implications on an elements’ concerns (see Tables 2–8, Implications from Climate Change). Questions are provided for each element that should be asked and discussed by the community at large and local decision-makers. Doing so will imbed climate change into our thinking and enable us to adapt to likely implications. 3. What we need to do Now: Take Actions with Real Impact. This Assessment leads up to what is perhaps the most important section – suggested actions for Bainbridge Island. Table 9, Adaptation Planning Implementation, lays out climate adaptation implementation measures that are called for. Three are called out as the primary actions that will begin to allow for future adaptation. They are: Action One: Create a Climate Change Task Force. This involves designation of the leaders, managers and staff that should incorporate climate change and community resilience into their duties. This will enable climate change considerations to be mainstreamed into the actions and decisions of Bainbridge Island into the future. Action Two: Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification (CAC). This requires evidence that any project proponent (including the City of Bainbridge Island) has assessed future site/operating conditions and determined climate readiness, including the avoidance of projected vulnerabilities. Such certification should be applied to and required prior to any fiscal or permitting decision. Action Three: Apply your understanding of how climate change will affect Bainbridge Island. Use the BICIA and Table 9 in particular to support these efforts. 1. Integrate climate information into all decision-making processes and continuously update access and understanding of the latest climate-relevant information. 2. Map all known and future vulnerable areas, showing overlays/intersections with critical facilities, ecosystems and infrastructure. This visual tool will enable us to apply our understanding of the climate changes that will have a locational effect on Bainbridge Island. Many implications of climate change cannot be mapped, however for those that can be pinpointed they should be made clear. 3. Track the application and efficacy of climate-savvy actions in order to modify and update as needed to keep Bainbridge Island on a path to resilience. How can local government use the BICIA? The BICIA offers focused, applicable products and process for developing climate-savvy local planning and management. Figure 1 below shows the process undertaken to develop the BICIA. Major components included a community elicitation process, whereby local knowledge and community values 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 16 iii were gathered to infuse the BICIA with innovative community-driven solutions. The community workshop (held at Bainbridge Island City Hall on November 18, 2015) enabled citizen access to informational materials and one-on-one engagement that helped to build local capacity and climate literacy and began to help individuals apply that to what they each care about. An intended outcome of this workshop and this project is to provide information and guiding questions so the community can create a more resilient Bainbridge Island in the face of climate change. If used, it can lead the City to effectively manage the changing conditions in the decades to come. Figure 1. The BICIA process, shown here, uses existing information that is freely accessible by all community members and community engagement in order to provide a tool for use by all Bainbridge Islanders in their own work, as well as in the update of the Comprehensive Plan. This process will also provide guidance for other communities. Rather than creating a stand-alone climate change plan for the City of Bainbridge Island (COBI), this process encourages the integration of climate change information directly into existing decision-making processes such that all decisions are climate informed and can benefit from the latest information, because climate change is a topic of emerging information and has implications for virtually every facet of our lives. What is the intent of this Climate Impact Assessment? The BICIA provides the foundation for the City and its citizens to create a more resilient Bainbridge Island in the face of climate change, by giving a framework for regular integration of climate impacts and implications into all local activities, including the update of the Comprehensive Plan. As individuals, as a community and as a society, we need to plan for climate change, just as we plan for future growth, social needs and economic trends. Doing so within a community’s Comprehensive Plan is logical and appropriate. The BICIA is intended to guide both government and citizens to incorporate climate change considerations into all activities. COBI can use the BICIA to do the following: • Inform the Comprehensive Plan update and implementation processes; • Assist with planning and decision making, such as siting, improvements, finance and project design undertaken by local government agencies including City of Bainbridge Island, Bainbridge Island Police Department, Bainbridge Island School District, and Bainbridge Island Metropolitan Park and Recreation District; and, • Assist with public/private partnerships, such as business improvement, transportation, and housing. Local government decisions can help improve local community outcomes, but the decisions each citizen makes have implications for their own lives as well as our collective community resilience. The BICIA contains information and ideas that can help us all make more informed and effective decisions in light of climate change. See the following box, What Can Community Members Do, for ideas. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 17 iv WHAT CAN COMMUNITY MEMBERS DO? 1) Inform yourself. Resources to get you started include: • An interview with Dr. Lara Hansen, EcoAdapt, by Bainbridge Community Broadcasting, providing information on climate change and Bainbridge Island (bestofbcb.org/cafe-031-ecoadapt-helps-cobi- comp-plan-to-adapt-to-climate-change/); • Guides to evaluating the climate vulnerability of a Comprehensive Plan element. See Element Briefs available at EcoAdapt.org/workshops/BICIA-workshop; • Puget Sound regional climate change impacts reports (Mauger et al. 2015), available at cses.washington.edu/picea/mauger/ps-sok/PS-SoK_2015.pdf; • Washington Chapter of the American Planning Association’s website, including their “Ten Big Ideas,” the first of which is to address climate change: www.washington-apa.org/address-climate-change. 2) Help the City incorporate climate change into all activities: • Encourage the Planning Commission to add all climate-savvy recommendations into the 2016 Comprehensive Plan update. • Ensure that the Comprehensive Plan recommendations become part of local code and practice. • Be the voice that asks about climate change when decisions are being made. 3) Make your own climate-savvy decisions at home, school and work • Consider how you can make a contribution to mitigation and adaptation on Bainbridge Island. There are goals, policies and actions within the BICIA that translate to your business or home. Modify what you see here for your own needs. Make your personal ecosystem climate savvy and durable. • Take every opportunity you have to plan for climate change in building, maintenance and transportation choices, including:  energy efficiency,  landscape and lawn care choices,  facilities siting and design,  encouraging non-motorized transport and car-pooling, and  conservation measures including reducing consumption and selecting smallest-footprint products. • Encourage your child’s school to:  Have a climate change curriculum that includes understanding of climate-relevant STEM topics, implications of climate change for society and opportunities to improve outcomes for their future. • Encourage your community groups (e.g. religious or social organizations) to:  Make community projects climate savvy for long-term success, including activities across the spectrum from social service support to recreational planning. • Ensure that your business is climate savvy:  Improve your energy and water efficiency to reduce current and future costs;  Work to improve or select for a more stable supply chain, including transportation links;  Plan for climate change in building, maintenance and transportation choices, including energy efficiency, landscape choices and other conservation measures and  Incorporate the premise that a stable, less climate-vulnerable local economy could benefit your business. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 18 Table of Contents Impacts of Climate Change for Bainbridge Island ............................................................................................ 1 Temperature ................................................................................................................................................... 1 Precipitation/Storminess .............................................................................................................................. 2 Sea Level Rise ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Vegetation Changes ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Ocean Acidification ....................................................................................................................................... 7 Slope Stability (confounded by climate change) ........................................................................................ 7 Climate Change Implications for Various Areas of Interest ........................................................................... 11 A Framework for Adaptation: Considering impacts and implications ...................................................... 11 Land Use ....................................................................................................................................................... 12 Questions to Consider for Land Use Adaptation .................................................................................... 15 Water Resources .......................................................................................................................................... 15 Questions to Consider for Water Resources Adaptation ..................................................................... 19 Environment ................................................................................................................................................ 20 Questions to Consider for Environmental Adaptation.......................................................................... 22 Infrastructure - Transportation, Capital Facilities and Utilities ................................................................. 23 Transportation ......................................................................................................................................... 23 Capital Facilities ....................................................................................................................................... 23 Utilities ..................................................................................................................................................... 24 Questions to Consider for Infrastructure Adaptation ........................................................................... 28 Economic Development ............................................................................................................................... 31 Questions to Consider for Economic Adaptation .................................................................................. 33 Housing ........................................................................................................................................................ 34 Questions to Consider for Housing Adaptation .................................................................................... 36 Social Services (inclusive of human services and cultural resources) ...................................................... 37 Questions to Consider for Social Services Adaptation .......................................................................... 39 Actions with Real Impact: What We Can Do Now ......................................................................................... 40 Literature Cited ............................................................................................................................................... 46 Appendix 1: The How and Why to the Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment .............................. 48 Project Activities ......................................................................................................................................... 48 Why did EcoAdapt conduct the BICIA? ...................................................................................................... 49 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 19 1 Impacts of Climate Change for Bainbridge Island The effects of climate change relevant to Bainbridge Island can be categorized in terms of six impact areas: temperature, precipitation/storminess, sea level rise, vegetation change, ocean acidification and slope stability. Temperature Regional climate has warmed over the past century, with increasing warming in the past thirty years (Mauger et al. 2015)1. This pattern is expected to continue in the 21st century with an increase of double to ten times as great. In degree terms, the historic average temperature for the Puget Sound lowland region was 50.3° F between 1950 and 1999, with 1.3° F of warming by 2014. This is trend is consistent throughout the region. Along with this warming, the frost-free season has grown longer by 30 days. Between now and mid-century, average annual air temperatures have a +4-5.5° F projected increase, with even greater warming possible in the years after. This warming, unlike warming observed to date, which has not substantially affected spring temperatures, will affect all seasons, with the greatest increase in summers. Figure 2. Regional projections for changes in temperature and precipitation. Note current emissions trajectory matches the RCP 8.5 curve on this graph. From Mauger et al. 2015. Increasing temperature has implications for Bainbridge Island in many aspects of our community and personal lives. Increasing temperatures may affect our demand for water, and it will certainly increase the need for water by Island vegetation (natural systems, agriculture and landscaping). Increasing temperatures will also affect our terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. They will also increase 1 State of Knowledge: Climate Change in the Puget Sound, Mauger et.al. 2015, is a report prepared by the University of Washington’s Climate Impacts Group with a focus on the Puget Sound region and therefore with results applicable to the Bainbridge Island. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 20 2 local incidence of heat-related illness, increase likelihood of diminished air quality, and add thermal stress to the list of things degrading local infrastructure such as road and bridges. (Table 1) Precipitation/Storminess To date there has not been a long-term change in regional precipitation. However, there has been a “modest increase” in rainfall events that are considered heavy. Going forward, year-to-year variation is expected to be the dominant factor in precipitation for all seasons except summer, which is expected to see declining precipitation (Mauger et al. 2015) (Figure 3). Additionally, there is an expectation for more intense (+22%) and more frequent extreme winter precipitation events (seven events per year, up from two events per year historically). Figure 3. Projected percentage difference in precipitation by season for the Pacific Northwest based on six climate scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.0; SRES B1 and A1B). From the Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington. Increasingly intense winter precipitation events have significant implications for all things affected by episodic flooding. This includes homes, businesses and critical infrastructure. For example, increasing “storminess” has the ability to overwhelm stormwater infrastructure that was designed to handle lower flows. Intensity of precipitation also negatively affects groundwater recharge rates (faster-moving water has less time to infiltrate) and surface water quality (heavier, faster rains pick up contaminants, nutrients and sediments, enabling them to travel). Declining precipitation during the summer, already our dry season, may result in decreased groundwater recharge rates as well. These decreased rates may not be offset by more intense winter precipitation, because periods of high flow often result in a greater percentage of the water running off into the Sound, increased risk of vegetation or wild fires (which do already occur on Bainbridge Island; Figure 4), and a change in the types of vegetation that can thrive on our Island. Another concern with respect to changing precipitation patterns are the approximately 6,900 onsite septic systems on Bainbridge Island, whose function will be affected by climate change because either too much water or too little water adversely affects their ability to function. The remaining 1,500 of the approximately 8,400 developed properties on-island are connected to sewer systems. The function and use of septic systems is important to understand because their use impacts groundwater recharge. Additionally, “increased precipitation or sea level rise may certainly affect septic system performance 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 21 3 due to their impacts on shallow groundwater levels and soil saturation” (J. Kiess, Assistant Environmental Health Director, Kitsap Public Health District, Pers. Comm., June 17, 2016). Additional aspects of the implications of changing precipitation and storminess patterns for Bainbridge Island are outlined in Table 1. Figure 4. Wildfire hazards as identified in the Bainbridge Island Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment. This map was created in 2010 based on an assessment and ranking of spatial hazards, proximity to a hydrant, and past occurrence of vegetation fires, which in part is related to annual precipitation and weather. The hazard shown here is based on past conditions; climate changes on top of this can result in increased occurrences or intensity of wildfires in some areas. From BIFD 2012. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 22 4 Sea Level Rise Global sea level rise and local factors are influencing sea level rise around Bainbridge Island. Over the next century, conservative estimates show sea level rising 14 to 54 inches in our region (Mauger et al. 2015). Variability is largely due to our understanding of ice melt in Greenland and Antarctica, as global sea level rise is due to thermal expansion as the ocean waters warm and increased volume as terrestrial ice sources (especially Greenland and Antarctica) melt into the world’s oceans. Increases at even the lower end of this range could seriously affect Bainbridge Island ecosystems and infrastructure, inundating coastal habitat, flooding roads and structures, and compromising the function of stormwater, septic and sewer systems. Areas of particular interest include the head of Eagle Harbor, Point Monroe and Lynwood Center, as well as Bill Point, home of the former Wyckoff Company and now an EPA Superfund site (Figure 5). Figure 5. Point Monroe, Lynwood Center and Eagle Harbor with a projected 3m of sea level rise. From NOAA 2015. It should be noted that shoreline planning will be directly affected by sea level rise. Shoreline Master Programs (SMP) are local land use policies and regulations designed to manage shoreline use in Washington State. They are prepared collaboratively by the Washington Department of Ecology (DOE) and each shoreline community, and must comply with the Shoreline Management Act (SMA) and Program Guidelines. SMPs are intended to “protect natural resources for future generations, provide 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 23 5 for public access to public waters and shores, and plan for water-dependent uses” (WA Department of Ecology, n.d.a website). Currently, the SMA does not require consideration of or planning for sea level rise, and the Bainbridge Island SMP does not either. At the time of this report, the DOE was considering updating the rules that implement the SMA. Part of the scope under consideration is to include a new section on planning for sea level rise, as evidenced by an April 1, 2016, DOE workshop on this topic (Talebi, Bobbak. 10 March 2016. “Re: Ecology Sea Level Rise Workshop Invitation.” Message to Christy Carr, COBI. E-mail.). Guidelines could be amended to provide technical or procedural recommendations for jurisdictions that elect to voluntarily address future conditions resulting from sea level rise. Another effect of sea level rise is the potential for seawater/saltwater intrusion into Bainbridge Island’s aquifers. The combination of rising sea level, increased extraction of water (due to population growth and increased temperatures, each increasing demand) and decreasing recharge (due to declines in summer precipitation, intensity of storm events, and reduced permeable surfaces) can increase the risk of saltwater intrusion into our aquifers. Saltwater compromising an aquifer reduces or precludes that aquifers’ utility as a source of drinking or agricultural water, possibly increasing local conflict and cost for water resources. On Bainbridge Island there has been one reported potential occurrence of saltwater intrusion detected in a nearshore community well causing it to be decommissioned and a new well drilled (Bannister et al. 2016). Funding and studies are now needed to confirm whether the cause was seawater intrusion, which would lead to mitigative or remedial actions to protect the drinking water supply in that area (C. Apfelbeck, COBI, Pers. Comm. June 27, 2016). In order to better understand groundwater resources, as well as future potential for saltwater intrusion, COBI contracted with Aspect Consulting for a groundwater assessment and modeling project to: 1) review recent groundwater data; 2) review and recommend updates and changes needed to the 2011 Bainbridge Island groundwater model by the United States Geological Survey (USGS 2011), and; 3) evaluate scenarios supporting land-use planning including a Critical Aquifer Recharge Area assessment and an aquifer system carrying capacity assessment (Bannister et.al. 2016). This third phase included climate change projections by “considering three concurrent stressors on the aquifer system”: 1) decreased groundwater recharge rates; 2) a 4-foot increase in mean sea level by the year 2100, and; 3) increased groundwater withdrawal rates to reflect population increases (Bannister et al. 2016). Predictive model results indicate that “groundwater from the Bainbridge Island aquifer system flows to Puget Sound and keeps the freshwater/seawater interface at a distance from the Bainbridge Island shoreline,” and that the “100-year simulated model results indicate no seawater intrusion and groundwater level decreases were less than [Bainbridge] Early Warning Levels” (Bannister et al. 2016). However, there are policy and planning implications that should follow from these findings that are discussed below in the Water Resources section. Specifically, future conditions may prove to be different from model parameters (e.g., future stressors may be greater than modeled) and seawater intrusion could result locally. It should also be noted that Bainbridge Island is home to a coastal Superfund site that involves soil and groundwater contamination. The Wyckoff site, located at the mouth of Eagle Harbor, was evaluated for vulnerability from climate change, especially sea level rise (EPA 2016a). Site managers are working with the knowledge that local sea level rose approximately “8.6 inches from 1900 to 2008” and is projected to rise up to 9.5 inches by 2030, up to 19.7 inches by 2050 and up to 60.7 inches by 2050. Over the past several decades, projections of sea level rise have steadily increased. Therefore, prudence suggests planning for the higher-end projections while preparing for even higher potential increases. This is especially relevant since the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has made estimates of water-level impacts from the combination of sea level rise and 100 year extreme water levels, which have inundation at 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 24 6 between 8 and 13 feet. To date there has not been any use of hydrological models to assess the implications of sea level rise and storm events on the aquifers in the vicinity of the Wyckoff site in the evaluation of treatment options. However, considerations around flooding and rainwater runoff have been evaluated and are anticipated to be addressed with possible changes in outfall pipe diameter (H. Bottcher, USEPA, Pers. Comm., June 1, 2016). Additional aspects of the implications of sea level rise for Bainbridge Island are outlined in Table 1. Vegetation Changes Changes in our local climate (e.g., increasing temperatures, decreasing summer precipitation) will affect local vegetation — forests, horticulture and agriculture. Forest distribution is projected to reduce Douglas fir in the Puget Sound region by mid-century, with possible expansions of western hemlock, whitebark pine and western red cedar across the Pacific Northwest (Mauger et al. 2015). Currently Bainbridge Island has a maritime evergreen needle leaf forest; climate change is projected to result in transition to temperate evergreen needle leaf forest or subtropical mixed forest. Summer water stress will decrease tree growth and increase fire risk. These changing conditions (e.g. climatological, heat and water stressed plants) are also likely to cause changes in pests. Therefore, while length of our growing season may increase, more extreme stressful conditions (heat, drought, flooding), coupled with pest pressure by new species and at different times may adversely affect agriculture and landscaping species. Figure 6. Projected vegetation changes for Bainbridge Island, based on MC1 models of A2 SRES emission scenarios. (From DataBasin) Local marine habitat will also see changes in flora and fauna. One area of particular concern is increasing magnitude and frequency of Harmful Algal Blooms, which can adversely affect shellfish, marine foodwebs and air quality. This is expected due to increasing temperature and altered pH (Mauger et al. 2015). Additional aspects of the implications of vegetation changes for Bainbridge Island are outlined in Table 1. Maritime evergreen needle-leaf forest Temperate evergreen needle-leaf forest Subtropical mixed forest Temperate warm mixed forest Warmer & Wetter Future 2070-2099 Modeled Historic Vegetation 1971-2000 Warmer & Drier Future 2070-2099 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 25 7 Ocean Acidification As carbon dioxide levels increase in the atmosphere, more of carbon dioxide is absorbed by the world’s oceans, resulting in acidification of the Puget Sound. Measurable declines in pH have already occurred and are expected to continue (Mauger et al. 2015). The impacts of ocean acidification on Puget Sound may be further compounded by changes in circulation and salinity due to changing runoff (heavy precipitation, declining snowpack) and water temperatures, and hypoxia (diminished dissolved oxygen). All of this has implications for water quality compliance and activities that affect or rely on water quality, including aquaculture and municipal sewage discharge compliance. Our understanding of the ramifications of ocean acidification is just beginning, with new revelations being made regularly. Our community will need to monitor this issue in order to plan and respond effectively. In addition to staying up to date on the emerging science and management practices in relation to ocean acidification, we can also find out what is happening locally by using the closest ocean acidification monitoring buoy to Bainbridge Island, located in Dabob Bay (Dabob NANOOS ORCA buoy http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/Dabob ). This site provides a local picture of how ocean conditions are changing and may help advise local decisions, such as marine resource management, aquaculture planning and permitting, and run-off and discharge issues. Additional aspects of the implications of ocean acidification for Bainbridge Island are outlined in Table 1. Slope Stability (confounded by climate change) Climate change has the potential to affect slope stability by increasing saturation (due to altered precipitation intensity and timing), altering the vegetation that holds slopes together (due to altered precipitation and increasing temperatures), increasing erosion (due to sea level rise and altered precipitation) and undermining hillsides (due to sea level rise and flooding). As a result, it is necessary to consider how planning, conservation and development may need to be modified due to changing slope stability. According to the most recent building exposure risk analysis, Bainbridge Island has a significant number of buildings (177, valued at $55 million) located within the landslide zone. Clearly this is not an insignificant concern for local planners (FEMA 2015). Since slope instability can threaten public and private infrastructure and natural resources, and endanger lives, stability should be understood prior to any local permitting. Currently there are tools provided by the Washington Department of Ecology intended to guide regional land use decisions, although in most cases these do not incorporate climate change concerns. However localities can apply their own knowledge of changing precipitation and sea level rise to shoreline slope stability mapping products (Figure 7)(Coastal Zone Atlas of Washington 1979). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 26 8 Figure 7. Figure 7. Shoreline Stability and Future Sea Level Rise. Some of the areas potentially impacted by simulated two feet sea level rise (light blue, circled in red; center). Sample areas showing slope stability concerns (outer). Sea level rise and associated coastal erosion are likely to exacerbate shoreline stability. From the Washington Department of Ecology (ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/femaweb/kitsap.htm) and NOAA (coast.noaa.gov/slr). Additional aspects of the implications of changing slope stability due to climate change for Bainbridge Island are outlined in Table 1. The following Climate Change Implications for Comprehensive Plan Elements table (Table 1) identifies the climatic implications that Bainbridge Islanders can expect to affect the interests considered in each local comprehensive plan element. This table, however, is not just useful for community planning; anyone can use it to understand which climate impacts will affect their personal, organizational or business choices, development decisions, capital expansions, future markets, landscaping, conservation actions, etc. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 27 9 Table 1. Climate Change Implications for Comprehensive Plan Elements Table 1 IMPACTS ELEMENT Temperature Precipitation/ Storminess Sea Level Rise Vegetation Changes Ocean Acidification Slope stability Water Resources • Increased temperature results in increased water use/extraction rates • Increased evaporation rates • Diminished water quality • Changes in groundwater recharge rates • Alter storm water retention & infrastructure needs and effects on stormwater discharge compliance • Flooding effects on water quality • Effects on proper function of septic & sewage systems • Risk of saltwater inundation of some aquifers and surface waters • Risk of salt/seawater intrusion into aquifers • Risk of inundating shoreline aquatic resources and habitat • Changing vegetation may require more water, alter hydrograph or limit groundwater recharge • Loss of riparian buffer function or composition • May affect sewage and stormwater discharge compliance • May negatively affect aquaculture • Potential negative impacts to and loss of flora/fauna, particularly shellfish • Loss of flora or new species may alter slope stability Land Use and Housing • Greater need for water due to higher temperatures • Increased agricultural stress • Increased temperature in buildings • Regional population growth due to impacts in other regions • Groundwater recharge may be diminished and further limited by impermeable surfaces • Potential risk to housing stock (flooding, leaks) • Stormwater retention and infrastructure needs may change • Effects on proper function of septic & sewage systems • Risk of saltwater inundation of septic systems and wells • Loss of some land and property • Affect Shoreline Master Plan efficacy • Change in buffer and green space condition • Limit suitability of lands for some uses Economy • Increased costs associated with cooling, water and some resources • Possible changing needs of heating & cooling • Changes in tourism patterns • Change in fisheries • Increased costs associated with water and some resources (food) due to less water • Risk of flooding events • Tourism disruption • Service disruptions • Increases in insurance costs • Increased costs for energy • Issues for boating and ferries • Cost of infrastructure repair/retrofit • Insurance costs • May affect cost of water if supply diminished • Changing agriculture costs, output and composition • Altered energy needs due to changes in plant cover • Change in fisheries • May affect cost of sewage and stormwater treatment • Loss/damage to facilities and infrastructure 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 28 10 Table 1 IMPACTS ELEMENT Temperature Precipitation/ Storminess Sea Level Rise Vegetation Changes Ocean Acidification Slope stability Environment • Thermal stress on local habitat • Diminished water quality (including nearshore marine, including hypoxia and harmful algal blooms) • Change in fisheries • Decreased seasonal stream flow, affects native fish • Stormwater systems overwhelmed • Recharge surface may become insufficient • Floodplain protection may need to increase • Altered fire risk • Altered hydrograph of estuaries and streams • Diminished water quality due to septic and sewage inundation • Possible loss of some protected or iconic flora (forest, agriculture) • Change in fisheries • Potential negative impacts to and loss of flora/fauna, particularly shellfish • Erosion • Critical habitat loss Transport • Roads and bridges adversely affected by thermal stress • Smog-related air quality hazards increase • Heat may reduce non-motorized transport • Increased risk of flooding • More drought may increase non-motorized transport, while strong rain events may increase auto dependence • Inundation of coastal roads • Dock/harbor infrastructure affected • Altered canopy cover may reduce protection for non- motorized transport • Loss or change of vegetation near roads may affect road condition (water flow, erosion) • Loss or change of vegetation may affect slope stability near roads Utilities and Capital Facilities • Changing energy demand • Changing energy availability • Capital facilities not designed for higher temperatures • Increased risk of flooding and fire • More wind storms increases risk of power outage • Septic and sewage systems affected by both heavy precipitation and low-flow drought events • Inundation of coastal infrastructure • Energy demand increases with different % canopy cover • May affect sewage and stormwater discharge compliance • Infrastructure placed in unstable locations Cultural Resources and Human Services • Increased incidence of heat-related illness (including respiratory due to adverse air quality) • Introduction of new disease-bearing pests • Potential risk to housing stock (flooding, leaks) • Drought and changes in water supply leading to rising costs • Heightened risk of waterborne pathogens and bacteria from flooding • Loss of coastal art and artifacts • Changing agriculture costs, output and composition • Loss of art and artifacts 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 29 11 Climate Change Implications for Various Areas of Interest The preceding section provided an overview of the climatic changes forecast to impact our local environment. This section intends to help Bainbridge Islanders begin adaptation planning by enabling you to ask and answer the initial appropriate question: What are the climate issues of concern for my area of interest and how will those issues affect what I am planning to do? Climate change will alter the circumstances upon which everyone makes decisions. To continue making informed decisions one needs to overlay the expected impacts onto an issue area and determine what the implications of climate change will be. For example, if you are an infrastructure planner, you need to know about site conditions such as slope stability. If you are planning for a capital investment near the shoreline, you would want to know about future flooding and sea level rise impacts. If you are permitting or constructing housing you should need to know about changes in average seasonal temperatures and the impact on energy consumption. Transportation systems generate stormwater and their function depends on its management; therefore transportation engineers and planners need to know projected precipitation to properly design durable facilities. If you are a local first responder, you need to know the hazards to which your community is vulnerable. This list goes on. Climate adaptation planning asks you to think about what baseline information you depend on to make decisions within your area of expertise. Next, you are asked to understand how that baseline information will change over time due to climate change. And lastly, you are asked to accommodate that change in your planning. A Framework for Adaptation: Considering impacts and implications Arguably the most important goal of climate adaptation planning is to integrate climate- informed thinking and apply the implications of climate projections into everyday decision- making. Effective planning in the face of climate change seeks to reduce a community’s contribution to climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) and increasing community resilience to the manifestations of climate change (adaptation) as central organizing principles of local policymaking. According to the APA Washington Chapter, there are three valid methods for fitting climate change into the planning process: 1) integrating future climate considerations into all long- term projects, 2) integrating climate change adaptation and resilience into existing planning practices, and 3) developing a climate adaptation/resilience plan (American Planning Association-Washington Chapter. 2015). It is also reasonable to use a combination of these methods, thereby tackling adaptation from many angles at once. Because Bainbridge Island is updating its Comprehensive Plan, this is an excellent opportunity to use an active planning process to integrate climate change into the plan, achieving methods 1 and 2, and thereby eliminating the need for a separate climate action planning process (method 3). As an umbrella for incorporating climate change into a Comprehensive Plan, it is important to have an overarching frame that provides perspective. To this end, a guiding principle for climate change in local planning could be: 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 30 12 Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) and increase the community’s climate resilience (adaptation) in the face of shifting conditions (e.g. sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, increasing temperatures and more extreme weather events) and the effects they cause (e.g., altered vegetation, changing water demands, economic shifts). One should also remember that climate adaptation planning is not only about dealing with negative circumstances, though it is often framed in terms of avoiding loss and safeguarding people, places, and things. There is opportunity to increase resilience and to construct a more sustainable and climate-conscious community and economy. This section explores seven community planning areas and provides questions to steer one toward climate-savvy decision making. Areas include: land use, water resources, environment, infrastructure (including transportation, capital facilities and utilities), economic development, housing, and social services (including cultural resources and human services). Land Use Most if not all of the implications of climate change come into play in work related to land use and land use planning. For example, sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, increasing temperatures, vegetation changes and our responses to those changes will all affect the suitability and success of all land use decisions, and changes in these conditions alter the foundation upon which most decisions are made today. Local development patterns provide opportunities to either benefit or compromise both climate mitigation and adaptation for the long term. The City should use its Comprehensive Plan and the Land Use goals to give a clear directive to enact mitigation and adaptation strategies: • Mitigation measures include reducing vehicle miles traveled, encouraging non- motorized transportation, taking other actions that will reduce consumption of fossil fuels, establishing green building incentives or regulations, and preserving vegetated/forested areas. • Adaptation measures include shifting development and infrastructure from flood- prone and other hazard areas, improving and integrating hazards planning, requiring drought-tolerant plantings in drought-prone areas and other efficient uses of climate- sensitive resources, Low-Impact Development, implementing economic development strategies that are sustainable in future climates, and encouraging energy-saving buildings, multimodal transportation, and redevelopment/retrofitting. Land use decisions and local planning are in large part about protecting public health, safety and welfare; therefore overarching most local government functions. Similarly, dealing with the impacts of climate change spans all disciplines and elements of any comprehensive plan. Several things should be acknowledged about climate change any time our community makes a land use decision, including: • Municipal officials will be called upon to address both the causes and consequences of climate change; • These same officials can be responsible for development of climate-aware goals and actions within each element of the local Comprehensive Plan and its implementation; 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 31 13 • The groundwork for a climate-savvy local plan needs to be laid down within the goals and policies of the Land Use – or overriding – element; • Regulations should acknowledge that climate change will impact future conditions and should be factored into all decision-making today; • Proactive climate-aware strategies and responses should be developed by all local actors, not just the local government; and that, • Bainbridge Island is, in fact, an island. We are bound by distinct borders and have a finite carrying capacity. In order to make land use decisions and investments today that will prove lasting in the future, we must understand and acknowledge what our future may look like (e.g., what resources and conditions will be present). Studies to determine components of this future should be undertaken. When they are it will be critical that climate change and future climatic scenarios be incorporated into any analysis. For example, if a City (or homeowner developing a supply well) undertakes a water study, parameters should be given for scenarios of supply and demand that consider altered precipitation patterns over time based on best available climate predictions (e.g. through longer study time horizons). Efforts should be made to evaluate potential future conditions to the degree possible. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), through the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 and their subsequent implementing actions, encourages communities to integrate hazard mitigation planning into local comprehensive planning in order to establish “resilience as an overarching value of a community and provid[e] opportunity to continuously manage development in a way that does not lead to increased hazard vulnerability” (FEMA, n.d.b). Climate adaptation planning follows this same reasoning and asks the same of communities. Resilience can be built through land use policies and regulations that take into consideration “information of the location, frequency, and severity of hazards ... and setting forth recommendations that influence development in a way that does not increase risks to life and property” (FEMA, n.d.b. Web). Basic questions about future climate must be asked when considering any development proposal, investment, maintenance, or new project. See Table 2, Land Use Implications from Climate Change, to determine what future climate related changes will affect land use. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 32 14 Table 2. Land Use Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT LAND USE IMPLICATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • Changing patterns have the potential to affect the proper functioning of local infrastructure. o stormwater inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated run off, erosion and landslides o increased maintenance needed • Changing patterns and extremes will cause shifts in overall vegetation types and habitats on the Island. • Groundwater recharge may be diminished and further limited by impermeable surfaces. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Increases and seasonal changes will increase the frequency and duration of droughts: o changes in growing seasons affects commercial agriculture and recreational gardening o increased demand for water o increased risk of wildfire (conflicts at the wildland-urban interface) • Long-term temperature trend changes will cause shifts in vegetation and habitats on the Island. Vegetation changes  shifts will occur in habitat suitability as a factor of changing temperature and precipitation • Changes can occur in buffer and green space conditions due to vegetation shifts. • There is the potential for deadwood and detritus as die-off occurs, which will increase the fuel load and risk for wildfires. • Changes can be seen in flora and fauna habitat suitability. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Coastal zone resources and shoreline stability are likely to be compromised by rising seas. o Roadways could be undermined by shoreline instability and land loss. Mapping should be done to identify vulnerable local infrastructure and critical community facilities. Consider linkages with Hazard Mitigation Planning. o outright loss by inundation of land • There is a risk of saltwater intrusion and its effect on the groundwater and drinking water supply of the Island. • There is a risk of saltwater inundation of septic and sewer systems. • The efficacy of the Shoreline Management Plan will be affected if it too doesn’t adapt to sea level rise. Slope Stability  Sea level and precipitation pattern changes will compromise once stable slopes • There is the potential for limited suitability of lands for some uses (both coastal and inland) due to changing slope stability and associated conditions (temperature, precipitation, sea level rise). RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THE ELEMENT Population changes  account for anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • Will climate lead to larger or smaller population on-Island? Population projections are an important piece of data in long- range planning. It is thought that regional population growth will occur due to impacts in other regions. Transportation plans  Vehicle miles traveled is one of the greatest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions • Sprawling versus compact development is fueled by transportation infrastructure, which will have a direct role in the Island’s ability to address local greenhouse gas emissions and the long-term costs of infrastructure maintenance. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 33 15 Questions to Consider for Land Use Adaptation The implications identified above in Table 2 should make it obvious that responsible planning and development requires decisions be considered through a climate change lens. Prior to any land use decision, we should ask: 1. Are our community and all stakeholders aware of effects on Island land uses from today’s precipitation, temperatures, and sea levels? • If these climate factors were to be altered, how would that affect our land use? • How would alterations affect land use investments? 2. Will future conditions prevent or hinder a proposed system/infrastructure/use/parcel from working as expected? Will they remain durable in the face of future climate? 3. Are our land use regulations sufficiently requiring compact, low-impact development patterns? • Does our community employ a host of land use tools that result in sustainable development? 4. Are there particular land uses that are likely to be impacted more directly or to a greater extent by climate changes? What special planning considerations can and should be made for these? • If we seek to preserve working waterfronts, will climate change alter conditions so that they can’t function? • If wetland was set aside, will it be wetland in the future? • Are we allowing space for migrating species and habitats? 5. Does hazard mitigation factor into land use decisions? • Does the permitting process explicitly require considering present and future vulnerable site conditions? • What hazard planning is required to be undertaken and how are vulnerability or risk assessments used in decision-making? o Are we as a community asking, “If development is allowed in a coastal zone that is subject to future sea level rise, and therefore becomes vulnerable to shoreline instability and localized flooding, is the City liable for any resulting harm?” (After all, they allowed the development in a known/projected hazard area.) Questions like this are beginning to be asked nationally (even by insurers), and it is important for planners and City leaders to get out in front. • If we do allow development in high-hazard areas, should we require bonding of the property by the developer to avoid future cost to the community that may be incurred by the risky development? Water Resources Water is an essential part of our Island life — for both natural and built environments — and its health is linked to the sustainability of both people and ecosystems on the Island. Bainbridge Island had chosen to add a Water Resources element to their 2004 Comprehensive Plan in order to elevate its importance and provide space to focus on it appropriately. This element includes consideration of surface water (including marine and 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 34 16 freshwater aquatic resources), stormwater, and groundwater. Typically in Washington community water supply resources are discussed in Comprehensive Plan Land Use elements where state statute requires that they “shall provide for protection of the quality and quantity of groundwater used for public water supplies” (RCW 36.70A.070(1)). The 2004 Water Resources element (COBI 2004) states, Adequate protection of the important [water] resource requires an understanding of what can affect the quality and quantity. Also of great importance is the management of the resource by guarding against potential impacts and monitoring the resource to ensure that water quality and quantity is in fact maintained at high standards. In March 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency designated the Bainbridge Island Aquifer System a sole source aquifer. According to that designation (EPA 2016b), [a] sole source aquifer is an underground water supply designated ... as the sole or principal source of drinking water for an area. The system EPA designated encompasses the entire Bainbridge Island area and is made up of six principal aquifers. One hundred percent of the current population on Bainbridge Island obtains their drinking water from the designated aquifer. There are no other sources of drinking water nearby that would be economically feasible to supply all residents in the area. It doesn’t take much thought to realize that there is a direct link between climate and the health and abundance of our water resources. According to the 2015 Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy, “natural and built systems are at risk from the effects of a changing climate, including increased average temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, altered hydrology (e.g., decreased snowpack, flow patterns), altered oceanic and atmospheric circulation, sea level rise, and changes in water chemistry and quality,” and these changes will stress water supplies and quality (ROSS 2015). The local Comprehensive Plan has a 20-year time horizon for planning. However, like many decisions a comprehensive plan informs, water resource decisions made in the past, present, and near future will affect the resource well beyond 20 years from now. How is this reconciled so that the community can ensure sustainable water resources? One part of the answer needs to be the factoring of future climate conditions (changing precipitation, temperatures, and sea level rise) into today’s decision-making. The Washington Department of Ecology Shoreline Master Program (SMP) deals with water resources in the nearshore and is a local document that drives policy and regulations affecting coastal development. Unfortunately, climate change impacts, including sea level rise, are not addressed or planned for by the SMP. The City has an opportunity within its Comprehensive Plan to address this omission by requiring holistic shoreline management under present and future conditions. Recent groundwater modeling studies done by Aspect Consulting for COBI provide new information the City can use to better protect its groundwater resources (Bannister et al. 2015, Bannister et al. 2016, Scrafford et al. 2015). This recent work clearly indicates that there are policy and planning changes needed to protect groundwater resources, and they will be especially important in light of climate change. In particular, while study results do not 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 35 17 project the freshwater-saltwater interface being pulled closer to shore (Bannister et al. 2016), achieving future groundwater conditions that align with the study parameters that stave off seawater intrusion, will require both water conservation and on-site recharge being maximized. To avoid degradation of our groundwater, a paradigm shift in planning around water must occur with a regulatory system that maximizes recharge, conservation, and reuse. This includes stormwater, sewer discharge, and all other wastewater stream runoff that historically have been managed to be removed from the water cycle on-island (C. Apfelbeck, COBI, Pers. Comm., May 31, 2016). See Table 3, Water Resource Implications from Climate Change, to determine how climate change has the potential to affect both the health and supply of Bainbridge Island's surface and groundwater resources. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 36 18 Table 3. Water Resource Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT WATER RESOURCE IMPLICIATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • More intense and frequent storms or heavier rainfall events can cause stormwater inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated runoff (degrading water quality), erosion, landslides, sediment loading and siltation downstream and in the Island’s embayments and other nearshore habitat/areas. • Stormwater systems may be undersized and development may have to accommodate greater flows and retrofit. • Undersized stormwater systems and flood events lead to runoff that may degrade water quality. • Changes in precipitation patterns will lead to changes in groundwater recharge rates (i.e., more intense events of shorter duration will decrease recharge; because water will simply run off before it has a chance to infiltrate). • Discharge compliance of sanitary and stormwater discharge may be affected. • Flow flashiness can cause erosion that degrades instream habitat and negatively impacts macroinvertebrate diversity and health. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Increases in temperature results in: o increased water use/extraction rates o rising surface water temperature that may affect aquatic species (e.g. salmon, macroinvertebrates, plankton) o increased evaporation rates that will affect surface habitat and groundwater recharge rates o diminished water quality Vegetation Changes  shifts will occur in habitat suitability as a factor of changing temperature and precipitation • Species composition in natural areas will change as precipitation and temperature changes. • Changes in water retention/recharge will affect wetland ecosystem functions, and result in the loss of riparian buffer function or composition. • Changing vegetation may require more water, alter the hydrograph or limit groundwater recharge. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Changes to coastal zone resources and shoreline stability o Shoreline instability and potential land loss can affect water pumping stations, sewer/septic and stormwater infrastructure as well as water supply wells. • Inundation risk to aquifers (intrusion), surface waters (overwash and increased tidal ranges), shoreline ecosystems and habitat. Slope Stability  Sea level and precipitation pattern changes will compromise once stable slopes • As vegetation changes and shifts there could be a loss of flora or addition of new species that alter slope stability. Slope failure may impact water infrastructure and negatively affect wetland ecosystem function. • Die-back and loss of root systems supporting slopes could lead to instability in highly vulnerable areas. Ocean Acidification  decreasing pH of the waters of Puget Sound • This has the potential to affect stormwater discharge compliance as toxicity is affected by pH. • Aquatic species may be affected by acidification due to climate change. RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THIS ELEMENT Population changes  account for any anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • Climate change may increase population on-Island (climate migrants). o An increase in population will increase water use/extraction rates and require more sanitary disposal, as well as causing additional pressure on local aquatic habitat integrity. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 37 19 Questions to Consider for Water Resources Adaptation The implications identified above in Table 3 should make it obvious that responsible use and preservation of Island surface and groundwater resources should be considered through a lens of climatic changes. We should ask: 1. Are current precipitation patterns fully understood as to how they impact water resources, wastewater systems, and stormwater management on-island? • If precipitation were to increase, decrease or change in intensity and duration, would it affect local water resources? • What in-stream flow impacts will result during both during wet and dry season base flow levels? 2. How will the many facets of climate change and our responses to it affect the islands aquifer systems and water budget? 3. Will our groundwater recharge pathways be affected by altered precipitation patterns? Will existing or proposed development and impermeable surfaces further confound this? 4. If sea level were to rise, would it affect our water resources? Do current tidal ranges have an impact on coastal lands, shoreline stability, and infrastructure in the coastal zone? • Do we know where vulnerable systems are located? • How would sea level rise affect our groundwater/drinking water supply? Is saltwater intrusion a risk under future conditions and what needs to be done to avoid the risk? 5. If average seasonal temperatures were to shift would it affect our water resources and the aquifers on which we depend? Are there currently any seasonal/temperature related impacts? Do isolated high-heat or cold days have an effect? Does use change with increasing temperatures? Does the efficiency of our water system change? 6. What is the appropriate planning horizon that should be applied to decisions in order to protect and sustain groundwater resources? If that timeframe is longer than a decision’s effective time horizon, should we conduct appropriate analysis and modeling so that we understand, as best we can, what state the resource is likely to be in 50 years? 100 years? 7. Are water resource conservation measures being fully implemented? 8. Can the Island use the Comprehensive Planning process and the Water Resources element to address precipitation change, sea level rise and other climate-related impacts, including altered patterns of use, which the Shoreline Master Program does not? 9. Has the City’s Critical Areas Ordinance, which has a role to play in water resources protection, been reviewed under the climate lens? Are there protections that can be strengthened or employed in this ordinance that will help reduce the impacts of anticipated climate change? 10. Under current climate conditions, are there any locations on the Island that are currently nearing or exceeding allowed discharge per sanitary or stormwater permits? What are the current concerns and will they be exacerbated by expected future climate? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 38 20 Environment Changing climatic conditions are anticipated to alter the long-term function of our natural systems —plants, pests, animals, surface water, fires, forests, agriculture, and everything else in the natural world around us (WA Department of Ecology, n.d.b website). Planning how we will adapt to and accommodate these changes is what Bainbridge Islanders should be starting today, and the Environmental Element of the Comprehensive Plan is an obvious place to start. Various landscapes and ecosystems of the island should be considered holistically as “environmental resources” of Bainbridge Island, including water resources, critical areas, wellhead and aquifer recharge areas, agricultural lands, open spaces (forests, fields), as well as the built environment and areas within it that form ecosystem corridor connections. One part of our local environment (and a noted priority for Islanders) is our open space/natural lands. There is opportunity to value and prioritize these natural areas beyond their aesthetic or community character value if we think about them as the climate adaptation tools that they are. The Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS 2015) argues for the thoughtful preservation of open space as one strategy to both mitigate and adapt to climate changes. ROSS (ROSS 2015) defines open space as: A diverse spectrum of lands across a rural and urban continuum on large and small scales. Traditionally open space may be imagined as wilderness lands or public parks, but it also encompasses resource lands for agricultural and timber production, wetlands and water bodies, local and regional recreational trail systems, as well as urban green spaces like parkways, rain gardens, and green roofs. Careful planning and acknowledgement of the importance of these open space resources on Bainbridge Island should be a main goal of our local community planning. Natural resource design standards will make natural systems and ecosystems more resilient to changing local conditions. In 2006, Bainbridge Island Mayor Darlene Kordonowy appointed the 2025 Growth Advisory Committee and asked them to develop recommendations on how to accommodate the City’s projected growth in a way that satisfied the mandates of the Growth Management Act, the spirit of the City’s Comprehensive Plan, and the community’s values and vision. The Committee produced the 2008 Bainbridge Island Open Space Study that presents an assessment of high- priority open space areas for conservation and gives a multi-pronged approach for preservation that includes both regulatory strategies and landowner incentives (Bainbridge Island Open Space Study 2008). The Open Space Study should be revisited and updated so that it can serve as a guidance document to the Comprehensive Plan and be made climate savvy itself. See Table 4, Environmental Implications from Climate Change, to determine what future climate related changes will have local effects on our environment. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 39 21 Table 4. Environmental Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • Changing patterns have the potential to cause stormwater inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated runoff, erosion and landslides, which have the potential to affect the proper functioning of local infrastructure and to degrade water quality and local environments. • Changing patterns and extremes will cause shifts in overall vegetation types and habitats on the Island. • Groundwater recharge may be diminished by flow rates and increased speed of runoff, and further limited by insufficient recharge surface area. • Drought and flood will cause alterations to the wildfire hazard risk. • Floodplain protection may need to increase and current floodplain delineations may become inaccurate. • Changes in seasonal streamflow will affect native fish. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Increases and seasonal changes will increase the frequency and duration of droughts. • Changes in growing seasons will affect commercial agriculture and recreational gardening. • Increased demand for water will result from drought, lower flows, etc. • As temperatures increases, longer drought periods result in increasing wildfire risk (conflicts at the wildland-urban interface). • Thermal stress will affect local habitats, and also local fisheries. • Inland and nearshore water quality will diminish as temperatures change, causing hypoxia and harmful algal blooms. Vegetation changes  shifts will occur in habitat suitability as a factor of changing temperature and precipitation • Long-term temperature and precipitation trend changes will cause shifts in vegetation and habitats on the Island. • Changes can occur in buffer and green space conditions due to vegetation shifts. • There is the potential for deadwood and detritus as die-off occurs, which will increase the fuel load and risk for wildfires. • Changes can be seen in flora and fauna habitat suitability, leading to possible loss of some protected or iconic flora. • Agricultural operations and recreational gardeners will need to adapt to changes in crop suitability and species tolerance. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Coastal zone resources and shoreline stability are likely to be compromised by rising seas. Outright loss of floodplain and other critical habitat area will result from inundation of today’s shoreline. • Saltwater intrusion can affect groundwater and drinking water supply of the Island. • Water quality can be affected by saltwater inundation/flooding of sanitary sewer and septic systems. • The efficacy of the Shoreline Management Plan will be affected if it too doesn’t adapt to sea level rise. • Alterations to the Island’s hydrograph will affect estuaries and streams. Slope Stability  sea level & precipitation pattern changes will compromise once stable slopes • Erosion of slopes can cause loss and damage to critical habitat. Ocean Acidification  decreasing pH of the waters of Puget Sound • Changes will occur in local fisheries. RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THIS ELEMENT Population changes  account for anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • Increases in Island population will place increased demands and stress upon all environmental resources. Transportation plans  Vehicle miles traveled is one of the greatest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions • Transportation projects and associated development patterns will have a direct role in the Island’s ability to address local greenhouse gas emissions. Vehicle miles traveled will directly impact Island air quality and ground level ozone (see Environmental Goal 13). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 40 22 Questions to Consider for Environmental Adaptation In order to comprehend the climate vulnerability of the environment and apply climate change realities to decision-making, we should ask: 1. How do current precipitation patterns affect our environment? How will alterations in precipitation patterns affect our local environment? (E.g., if water recharge set-asides or permeability standards are devised, they would need to be sufficient under changing precipitation patterns.) 2. Are there currently any seasonal/temperature-related impacts (e.g., do isolated high-heat or cold days have an effect on our environment)? If average seasonal temperatures and patterns were altered, would it affect our local environment? • What effects will occur locally as the growing season changes? Will there be impacts for crop suitability, including species tolerance, water needs and pest management? 3. How do sea level and associated conditions (high tides, inundation and frequency) affect the Island today? • How does sea level affect our coastal zone and nearshore environmental resources? • Does this have an impact on sanitary sewers, septic systems, and stormwater drainage? And how do the proper functioning of all these systems affect the Island’s environment? 4. Do changing patterns have the potential to affect critical area and habitat location and function? Will natural resource lands and open space areas be affected? • Should we prioritize areas likely to serve as climate refuges for local and migrating flora and fauna (areas likely to maintain more stable conditions over time)? • Do we need to look to yet-unprotected or unidentified lands in order to avoid future flooding? To accommodate vegetation and habitat (e.g. wetlands) migration? • Are local regulations sufficient to prevent or promote development that is desirable and resource protective? 5. What effects would the Island experience if there are shifts in vegetation composition (die- off, migration, new species) in natural areas? • How can we ensure future ecosystem function under changed conditions? • What effects will be seen on the type and quality of open space and the function of our natural resource lands? Will it matter if these areas change? • If a wetland, or other area, is protected or restored will it serve that function in the future? Will areas we protect today hold the same resource values under changed conditions? 6. As temperature and precipitation patterns change (more frequent and prolonged drought) the risk of wildfire may increase. (Note: Bainbridge experiences vegetation fires every year – according to the Bainbridge Island Fire Department Hazard Vulnerability Assessment, from 1989-2009 there were 454 reported vegetation fires.) • What actions should be taken now to prepare for this risk? • Is it important to identify vulnerable forests and their interface with developed areas? • What are the consequences of fires and firefighting efforts (e.g., physical breaks, chemical use, water needed) for our local environment and community? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 41 23 7. How is local air quality today? Will Bainbridge Island exceed air quality standards in the future, either due to warmer summers resulting in more ground level ozone, or colder winters resulting in greater local fuel use? Infrastructure - Transportation, Capital Facilities and Utilities Infrastructure is a category that includes myriad capital facilities and services that a government typically provides to its citizens, including utilities, roads, transportation systems, public buildings, schools, parks, water, sewer and stormwater systems, and first responder services. Climate change may significantly alter the proper functioning, longevity, and fiscal responsibility of local infrastructure. Climate-savvy planning for infrastructure would ensure that climate vulnerabilities/variabilities inform infrastructure improvements, siting and design. Transportation Land use and transportation are clearly linked: good outcomes in one can allow good outcomes in the other. If land use development patterns result in compact development, then multi-modal transportation systems that generate lower numbers of vehicle miles traveled can flourish. Low-impact modes such as walking and biking become more practical. Transportation infrastructure and use patterns are directly linked to production of greenhouse gas emissions and local air quality. Therefore, when they are managed to reduce motorized transit they foster climate change mitigation. On Bainbridge Island there are homes and businesses that are indeed spread out across the island, and for many, transportation seems dependent on car trips. Improvements and expansions in the non-motorized pathways and trail systems (if done well, such that they provide routes to where people need to go) could reduce car dependence while increasing safety, decreasing traffic, improving environmental quality and improving public health. Every opportunity should be taken by the City to invest in non-motorized transportation infrastructure (e.g., pedestrian and bicycle trail expansions, improvements, and linkages). Additionally, great effort should be taken to improve public transportation, which reduces traffic, improves environmental quality (think hybrid and electric buses), and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, public transit and non-motorized transit corridors can be designed to be more resilient to climate change, being built out of harm's way from expected risks and vulnerabilities. Capital Facilities Hazard mitigation and climate adaptation strategies overlap perhaps nowhere else as obviously as they do when thinking about capital facilities. Providing public facilities or services and making capital expenditures in areas that are vulnerable to hazards is simply not good public policy. FEMA recognizes that “a community’s facilities and infrastructure policies are directly linked to land use patterns and community development” (FEMA n.d.a). Resilience will be improved when policies limit or exclude facilities, services and capital expenditures in present or future hazard areas. It is critical to ensure long-term durability and continued function by not investing in climate vulnerable locations. Additionally, it is important to ensure that any ongoing hazard identification and risk assessment on which planning is based fully incorporates climate change impacts and implications. Plans relevant 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 42 24 to Bainbridge Island include the 2012 Bainbridge Island Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment by Bainbridge Island Fire Department & Western Washington University, the 2015 Risk Report prepared by FEMA for Kitsap County, and the 2012 Kitsap County Multi- Hazard Mitigation Plan by the Kitsap County Department of Emergency Management. Updates of these should all be informed by climate change implications. Communities make major investment in stormwater infrastructure, which is quite vulnerable to climate change due to its ability to function during low and high flow periods. Both of these are likely to be more common on Bainbridge Island due to climate change. The Washington Department of Ecology will soon begin to require Low Impact Development (LID) Municipal Stormwater Permitting (also known as Green Stormwater Infrastructure). Bainbridge Island will be required to incorporate LID best management practices into local codes, ordinances, and standards. LID is “a stormwater and land use management strategy that strives to mimic pre-disturbance hydrologic processes by emphasizing conservation, use of on-site natural features, site planning, and distributed stormwater management practices ... that are integrated into a project design” (WA Department of Ecology, n.d.c website). LID best management practices include infiltration, filtration, storage, evaporation and transpiration through the use of bio retention, rain gardens, permeable pavements, minimal excavation foundations, vegetated roofs, and rainwater harvesting. Bainbridge Island should utilize this opportunity and require the use of LID to the greatest extent possible and design LID standards such that they are responsive to the changes we will see in the coming decades. Utilities Conversion and conservation are key words when it comes to developing climate resilient and durable utilities. The reliance on and continued use of fossil fuels in the production of energy is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. A community can work to reduce its overall reliance on fossil fuels by increasing requirements on utility providers for conservation of fossil fuels and conversion to renewable sources of energy. Communities with an opportunity to switch to a utility provider that relies on renewable energy should take every available opportunity to do so, as it is the most efficient and rapid path to reduced carbonization. Additionally, an overall reduction in energy use and water use is a climate adaptation strategy; if we need less, we can thrive when there is less. Other opportunities in the utility sector for resilience include improved energy efficiency, grid redundancy and “smart” control design coupled with renewable energy. Forward-thinking communities are undertaking measures to change their energy footprint. For example, the Metropolitan Council of Minnesota, the regional planning agency for the Twin Cities area, is encouraging inclusion of climate change in local plans, and has developed a regional plan, Thrive MSP 2040, that encourages resilience. The Resilience Plan provides suggested implementation measures, such as suggesting “natural resource design standards to make natural systems and ecosystems more resilient to development” (Metropolitan Council 2016). Community forests, for example, will help to mitigate urban heat island effects. Local Twin Cities’ governments are required by state law to include an element in their Comprehensive Plan for protection and development of access to direct sunlight for solar energy systems (a mitigation measure). Other communities have also prioritized maximizing their local generation and renewable potential. Lancaster, Calif., for example, has created a locally run, not-for-profit power program to promote local generation and use of 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 43 25 sustainable energy, and aims to be the first net-zero city in the United States (City of Lancaster n.d.). The city has also set in place high energy efficiency requirements and incentives for all local development (residential and commercial), as well as incentives for local generation (Center for Sustainable Energy n.d.). Future climatic conditions and impacts on infrastructure must be considered in order to effectively plan any long-term investment, maintenance, or new infrastructure project. See Table 5, Infrastructure Implications from Climate Change, to determine what climate related changes will have an impact on Bainbridge Island infrastructure. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 44 26 Table 5. Infrastructure Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT INFRASTRUCTURE: TRANSPORTATION, CAPITAL FACILITIES AND UTILITIES IMPLICATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • Changing patterns have the potential to cause inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated runoff, erosion and landslides, which will affect the proper functioning of local infrastructure and the provision of utilities (including stormwater inundation and localized flooding, more frequent power outages as transmission lines are compromised, and structural damage to critical facilities from erosion and landslides). • Predicted “storminess” includes the potential for more wind storms, which increases the risk of power outages and disruption to the provision of other utilities. • Drought and flood will cause alterations to the wildfire hazard risk, necessitating increases in fire department services and infrastructure and potential costs associated with land management to prevent wildfire. • Sanitary sewers and community/private septic systems will be impacted by both heavy precipitation and low-flow drought events. • New infrastructure (capital projects) may be needed to remedy system failure or capacity. • More rain or extreme storms may lead fewer people to use non-motorized transportation; the desirability of the bike/walker culture may be affected. This shift would increase greenhouse gas emissions, degrade local air quality and increase Island ground- level ozone. It may also impact demand patterns for other modes. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Increases and seasonal changes will increase the frequency and duration of droughts, leading to increased demand for water. New infrastructure may be needed to remedy system failure or increase capacity (capital projects). • As temperatures increase and there are longer drought periods, there is an increased risk of wildfire, necessitating increases in fire department services and infrastructure and potential costs associated with land management to prevent wildfire. • Longer seasons, hotter hots and colder colds will change energy demand from what it is today and may change the availability of certain types of energy. Additional and differentiated energy sources may be needed and will result in capital projects and costs, as well as new or expanded infrastructure. • Excessive or prolonged heat degrades infrastructure more quickly, necessitating increased maintenance budgets for repairs and replacements (thermal stress). • Smog-related air quality hazards may increase. • The desirability of the bike/walker culture may be affected and more extreme temperatures (colder colds, hotter hots) may lead fewer to use non-motorized transportation (thus increasing greenhouse gas emissions, degrading local air quality and increasing Island ground level ozone). This may also impact demand patterns for other modes. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean: 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Coastal zone resources and shoreline stability are likely to be compromised by rising seas. o Outright loss of floodplain and other critical habitat area will result from inundation of today’s shoreline and low-lying areas. o Roadways can be undermined by shoreline instability, land loss, and inundation. o Dock and harbor infrastructure will be compromised by rising seas, necessitating increased maintenance, retrofitting or replacement. • Saltwater intrusion can affect groundwater and drinking water supply of the Island. • Water quality can be affected by saltwater inundation of sanitary sewer and septic systems or untreated stormwater runoff. • The efficacy of the Shoreline Management Plan will be affected if it too doesn’t adapt to sea level rise. Vegetation changes  shifts will occur in habitat suitability as a factor of changing temperature and precipitation • Long-term temperature and precipitation trend changes will cause shifts in vegetation and habitats on the Island. (If these changes occur in transportation corridor buffers, they could impact roadways (brush fires, deadfall, water flow, etc.) • There is the potential for deadwood and detritus as die-off occurs, which will increase the fuel load and risk for wildfires. • Energy demand for heating and cooling will increase if the percentage of tree-cover/canopy changes over time. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 45 27 Table 5. Infrastructure Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT INFRASTRUCTURE: TRANSPORTATION, CAPITAL FACILITIES AND UTILITIES IMPLICATIONS Slope Stability  Sea level and precipitation pattern changes will compromise once stable slopes • Loss or change of vegetation, precipitation patterns, and rising sea level may affect slope stability near and under roadways or other infrastructure, causing structural failure and necessitating repairs. Ocean Acidification  decreasing pH of the waters of Puget Sound • Ocean acidification may compromise stormwater and sewage discharge compliance, making capital projects necessary. RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THIS ELEMENT Population changes  account for anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • It is uncertain whether climate changes will lead to increased or decreased population on-Island: • Increases in population will place increased demands and stress upon all capital facilities and utilities across the island, including requiring additional transportation infrastructure; and • Reductions in population may affect abilities to provide cost-effective public modes. Transportation projections, TIP projects, other proposals vehicle miles traveled contributes to greenhouse gas emission • All future transportation projects will have impacts related to Island air quality and local greenhouse gas emissions. Know what new contributing sources may arise, and what to do about them. Projects including those that take cars off the road, decrease idling, improve and increase non-motorized use and access, or use and develop alternative/green fuels use will help mitigate future climate change by decreasing emissions. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 46 28 Questions to Consider for Infrastructure Adaptation The implications identified in Table 5 should make it obvious that responsible infrastructure development or commitment of resources should be considered through a lens of these changes. In order to responsibly provide durable infrastructure, climate vulnerability should be fully understood. We should ask: 1. Will future climatic conditions prevent existing or proposed infrastructure from working as expected? 2. How do current precipitation patterns affect infrastructure on the Island? As precipitation patterns are altered, how will they impact local infrastructure? • What effect would an increase in intensity of rainfall/storminess have on Island infrastructure? • What effect would periods of drought have on island infrastructure? • Are we prepared to respond and recover from infrastructure failures that may result from “storminess”? (E.g., too wet and too dry are both conditions under which septic systems fail.) • Does precipitation cause any transportation impacts, including delays or changes in levels of service, street flooding, changes in commuting/mobility patterns? (e.g., if it’s rainier do fewer commuters bike and more drive instead?) • Are Low Impact Development stormwater management techniques sufficiently addressing concerns? Are they being used? Are they sufficient as designed? Do they need to be updated? 3. Are there currently any seasonal/temperature related impacts to Island infrastructure? If average seasonal temperatures were to shift, how might it impact our infrastructure? • Do isolated high-heat or cold days affect our infrastructure? • Are our capital facilities designed to function efficiently under altered temperature scenarios? • Can the community absorb increased costs of heating and cooling? • Can we provide adequate energy to meet those needs? • Do temperatures affect transportation patterns, e.g. fewer bikers and walkers? 4. How do sea level and associated conditions (high tides, inundation and frequency) impact the Island today? Would sea level changes impact infrastructure? • What community facilities and infrastructure are in places that may experience inundation or storm surge? • Which community facilities and infrastructure may experience functional impairment due to sea level rise or storm surge? • Are there transportation systems, locations, levels of service, or patterns that are affected by coastal conditions? Do current tides have an impact? 5. How does existing vegetation affect infrastructure and utilities today? Will shifts in vegetation composition (die-off, migration, new species) impact infrastructure and utilities? • As temperature and precipitation patterns change (more frequent and prolonged drought), the risk of wildfire may increase. What actions should be taken now to 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 47 29 prepare for this future risk? Does this involve capital projects and/or increases in public safety infrastructure? • Is it important to identify infrastructure and utilities that are located in or near wildfire risk areas? • What are our fire abatement techniques and what are the possible implication of these actions given climate change (e.g., use of chemicals, need for water, vegetative management)? 6. Does the community know where its vulnerable infrastructure is located? Is it likely that today’s problems will be exacerbated by climate changes? Will stable infrastructure become vulnerable? • Do we know where our high hazard/vulnerable areas are and what critical facilities and infrastructure lie within that area? What infrastructure may be located in a future hazard area? • Can we create a “watch list” for infrastructure that already exhibits climate vulnerability? Which facilities or systems are likely to become more vulnerable under future conditions (some may even become less problematic)? • Does the City participate fully in ongoing hazard mitigation planning processes and utilize those findings in their land use, capital facilities, and economic development planning? • Are we ensuring that any active hazard identification and vulnerability assessment work includes climate change and its implications as hazards? • If we do allow infrastructure development in high-hazard areas, should we require bonding of the property by the developer (even if the “developer” is the City) to avoid future cost to the community that may be incurred by the risky development? 7. Are there local mechanisms that Bainbridge Island should employ now to diversify the provision of energy in the future? • Can the City do anything to act in advance of the fact that climate change may dictate significant cost structure changes and supply issues that are yet unknown and necessitate the need to abandon fossil fuel use and turn to renewables? 8. What mechanisms can the City use to address any climate vulnerability identified in our infrastructure? How can we require infrastructure investments that are designed to function in future climate scenarios? • Can any changes be made to the local building code and design requirements? • Can we create a “climate-secure certification process” whereby infrastructure must demonstrate consideration of present and future conditions and increased climate vulnerability in any capacity calculations, studies, siting, and permit approvals? Such a process could require inclusion of future projected conditions/climate scenarios to understand future resource conditions, including groundwater recharge rates, stormwater runoff calculations, supply conditions, location within a vulnerable area, and sustainable power supply. 9. Does our community prioritize alternatives to fossil fuel based systems, thereby acknowledging and demonstrating through action that our transportation and utility infrastructure can play a role in climate change mitigation? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 48 30 • Is COBI doing all it can and should to support and plan for non-greenhouse gas emitting transit? • Is COBI developing infrastructures for low carbon, alternative green energy based fuel systems? • Are we supporting and enabling Low Impact Development techniques and green transportation infrastructure sufficiently and without unnecessary barriers? 10. Does our community prioritize actions within the Non-Motorized Transportation Plan to help address climate change? • Are there potential climate impacts to non-motorized infrastructure that will diminish its durability? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 49 31 Economic Development Clearly, not all consequences of climate change are environmental, and impacts to the environment are not without ramification to our cities and economy. “Potential costs to Washington families, businesses and communities are projected to reach nearly $10 billion per year by 2020 if Washington state and other states and nations fail to drive reductions in climate-changing greenhouse gas pollution” (WA Department of Ecology, n.d.d website). Potential costs to Washington economies include lost natural water storage from snowpack decline, increased public health costs, reduced salmon populations, increased energy costs, increased wildfire costs, lost recreation opportunities, coastal and storm damage, reduced food production and increased infestation of pests in forests. Additionally, one close to home example of economic impact is to Washington’s shellfish industry, which leads the nation in the production of farmed oysters, clams and mussels. Even by 2011, shellfish producers in Washington had already experienced declines in oyster production, due at least in part to the increasing acidity of our marine waters due to increased carbon dioxide in our atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels (WA Department of Ecology, n.d.d website). Conditions are not getting any better. The Comprehensive Plan gives Bainbridge Island an opportunity to address future economic challenges from climate change and to plan for economic strength and diversity. Climate adaptation strategies and policies can bring about economic benefit, and other communities are beginning to recognize this and act. This is not a new idea, and is being done around the country by forward-thinking, climate-savvy communities. The Metropolitan Council of Minnesota (mentioned above as an energy leader) is encouraging planning for climate change in local plans, and states within their Local Planning Handbook that “[a] diverse local economy that strategically uses local resources is less vulnerable to economic volatility and regional or global recession. Minimizing exposure of city budgets to the risk of property value fluctuations or development cycles will help cities be better prepared for circumstances beyond normal operations…” (Metropolitan Council 2016). Consider actions taken by the City of Lancaster, Calif., to create economic incentives by decreasing local power costs with renewable power generation (City of Lancaster website). Bainbridge Island can position itself for a sustainable economic future by working toward energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. There is a clear link to be understood between climate and economy. See Table 6, Economic Implications from Climate Change, to determine what future climate related changes will affect our local economy. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 50 32 Table 6. Economic Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • Changing patterns have the potential to cause stormwater inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated runoff, erosion and landslides. This will affect the proper functioning of local infrastructure and lead to degraded water quality and local environments. All island residents, businesses and governments depend on the proper functioning of these systems. • Water supply may be reduced, which will likely increase the cost of water for all users. • Floodplain protection may need to increase and current floodplain delineations may become inaccurate, leading to additional insurance costs for businesses, residents, and local government. • Changes in seasonal streamflow will affect native fish and fisheries. • If tourism is largely weather-dependent, changes in precipitation patterns may result in changes in tourism numbers and patterns. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Increases and seasonal changes will increase the frequency and duration of droughts. • Increases and seasonal changes will affect the costs associated with indoor climate control, leading to higher costs for heating or cooling. • Changes in growing seasons will affect commercial agriculture and recreational gardening, as well as associated businesses. • Increased demand and rising costs for water will result from drought, lower flows, etc. • Thermal stress will affect local habitats, and also local fisheries. • If tourism is weather-dependent, changes in temperature patterns may result in changes in tourism numbers and patterns. Vegetation changes  shifts will occur in habitat suitability as a factor of changing temperature and precipitation • Long-term temperature and precipitation trend changes will cause shifts in vegetation and habitats on the Island. • Agricultural operations and recreational gardeners will need to adapt to changes in crop suitability and species tolerance. o Changes in production costs, output and composition may result in higher food prices. o Changes in recreational gardening needs may boost related business, but may also increase resources required. • If canopy and/or ground cover change, it could lead to altered energy needs for indoor climate control. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Coastal zone resources and shoreline stability are likely to be compromised by rising seas. Outright loss of floodplain and other critical habitat area will result from inundation of today’s shoreline. Water dependent uses will be adversely affected. • Saltwater intrusion can affect the groundwater and drinking water supply of the Island – affecting costs and availability for all water consumers. • Water quality can be affected by saltwater inundation/flooding of sanitary sewer and septic systems. • Shoreline infrastructure (docks, piers, drainage systems, roads) will be negatively affected, resulting in costs for repair, maintenance, retrofitting, and loss of use. • Changes in the coastal zone translates to changes in costs for coastal property owners (insurance, maintenance, loss of use). Slope Stability  sea level & precipitation pattern changes may compromise once stable slopes • Erosion of slopes can cause loss and damage to facilities and infrastructure. Ocean Acidification  Decreasing pH of the waters of Puget Sound • Changes will occur in local fisheries (recreational and commercially viable). • Ocean acidification may affect the cost of sewage and stormwater treatment due to changes required to maintain compliance with discharge permits). RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THIS ELEMENT Population changes  account for anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • Increases in Island population could place increased demands and stress upon all economic and environmental resources. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 51 33 Questions to Consider for Economic Adaptation The implications identified in Table 6 should make it obvious that economic sustainability depends on creating a flexible and durable economy in the face of climate change. In order to comprehend the climate vulnerability of the economy and to plan future resilience, we should ask: 1. Do current precipitation patterns affect our economy, and what will happen if precipitation patterns change? Consider the economic impact of: • increasing costs associated with water, food, transportation and energy; • precipitation on tourism; • increased risk of flooding, storm damage, wildfire (other impacts); and • changes in precipitation (more flood-prone areas, more frequent flooding events) and that effect on business costs (maintenance, insurance, continuity of service). 2. Do current average seasonal temperatures affect our local economy and what will happen if temperature patterns change? Consider the economic impact of high-heat or cold days and longer seasons: • will they have an effect on our economy and the resources that drive it; • will they affect personal and business operations and expenses (changes in energy needs, increased cost of water); and • does the weather affect tourism? Should we care? 3. Do sea level and associated conditions (high tides, inundation, etc.) affect the Island today? • If sea level rise affects our coastal zone and nearshore environmental resources, will this affect our local economy (consider shellfish production, boating infrastructure, homes, businesses, transportation, etc.) • Does sea level affect proper functioning of drinking water wells, sanitary sewers, septic systems, and stormwater drainage? And how would failures compromise the Island’s economy (unanticipated expenses to business, government and taxpayers)? 4. Are there sectors of our local economy that are based on today’s climatic conditions? Consider: • economic implications of losing/lessening value of working waterfronts/shorelines; • effects that will occur locally as the growing season changes; • agriculture/aquaculture (crop suitability, including species tolerance, water, pests); • water dependence (use of in processing, proximity to); and • tourism (an important local economic factor). 5. Do we understand our climate-economy link (at the global, regional, and then local scale)? • Is the Bainbridge Island economy vulnerable to changes elsewhere (e.g., supply locations for food and other products, transportation corridors)? Can we take action locally to reduce these vulnerabilities? • Will changes on Bainbridge Island affect people elsewhere? For example, will we receive and accommodate tourists at desired levels? • Is there local support for the long-term sustainability, including extreme weather event recovery, of local businesses? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 52 34 6. Does local economic policy support an economy that is based on business that will help reduce community vulnerability to climate change (e.g., those that prioritize increased efficiency of resource use such as water and energy, promotion of sustainability elements, adaptable businesses as conditions change)? 7. Does the Island discourage a local economy that is vulnerable to climate change by avoiding businesses that will exacerbate community vulnerability (e.g., excessive water dependence, harmful land use change, transportation dependence, high greenhouse gas emissions, and high energy use)? 8. Are we encouraging use of durable assets (natural elements, renewable resources) in development of economy and community? Housing Housing is a basic human need that must be affordable and accessible to everyone. Changing climatic conditions have the potential to greatly affect Bainbridge Island housing stock, particularly in terms of location within vulnerable areas and energy efficiency of its basic design. The Comprehensive Plan Housing Element gives us an opportunity to address both adaptation and mitigation in our housing decisions. Climate mitigation (reducing greenhouse gas emissions) will be affected by increases in sustainable and green building design that improve efficiency and lower consumption (less water and energy use, less need for heating and cooling through improved insulation, energy efficient appliances, alternative energy access, drought-tolerant plantings), as well as transportation patterns associated with location of housing (locations closer to non-motorized and public transit corridors could decrease emissions). In the future, sustainable design and access to non-motorized and public transit will help homeowners adapt to rising costs of resources because they will need to consume less. Planning for an adaptive housing stock would also require development of affordable housing that remains affordable over time. If homes are not energy efficient under future climate scenarios, affordability may not be lasting, or it may pass costs onto future inhabitants. Similarly, adaptive housing should be located in areas associated with non- motorized and public transportation, providing residents with climate-savvy choices. Location of housing within a known or projected hazard area is a true indicator of vulnerability. Just as we should consider the location of a home within a known or potential future floodplain or tidal inundation zone, we should understand its susceptibility to other climate related hazards as well. For example, wildfire is a hazard that already exists on the Island, has the potential to affect housing stock, and may increase over time as temperature and precipitation patterns change. Bainbridge Island experiences vegetation fires every year; from 1989-2009 there were 454 reported vegetation fires (BIFD 2012). Identifying the vulnerability of the existing housing stock to wildfire involves mapping wildfire risk areas and locating the wildland-urban interface (WUI). WUI is something that Bainbridge Island homeowners should be aware of, and homeowners should know their risk (Luke Carpenter, BIFD, Pers. Comm., April 29, 2016). See Table 7, Housing Implications from Climate Change, to determine what future climate related changes will affect housing. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 53 35 Table 7. Housing Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT HOUSING IMPLICATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • Changing patterns have the potential to cause stormwater inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated runoff, erosion and landslides, which have the potential to affect the proper functioning of local infrastructure and to lead to degrading water quality and local environments. Development and design standards should accommodate future conditions to avoid failure, as well as increased maintenance, repair and other associated costs to homeowners and the community. • Drought and flood will cause alterations to the wildfire hazard risk and affect housing stock at the wildland-urban interface. • Floodplain protection may need to increase, and current floodplain delineations may become inaccurate. Be sure not to locate new housing in future hazard zones. • Localized flooding and heavy rains can affect low quality, older, or poorly located housing stock. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Increases and seasonal changes will increase the frequency and duration of droughts. • As temperatures increase and there are longer drought periods, there is an increased risk of wildfire (conflicts at the wildland- urban interface). • Local temperature fluctuations and new seasonal averages will affect energy use and a home’s ability to maintain a stable, habitable climate in an affordable way. • Local and regional greenhouse gas emissions may increase due to rates and types of home heating/cooling energy consumption. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Coastal zone resources and shoreline stability are likely to be compromised by rising seas. Outright loss of land can occur. Housing stock may be vulnerable. Slope Stability  Sea level and precipitation pattern changes will compromise once stable slopes • Housing stock located on coastal and inland slopes may be in danger if instability develops or increase. RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THIS ELEMENT Population changes  account for anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • Increases in Island population will place increased demands and stress upon all types of housing stock. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 54 36 Questions to Consider for Housing Adaptation The implications identified in Table 7 above make it clear that the provision of durable and/or affordable housing can be adversely affected by changing climatic conditions. As community housing decision are being made, the following questions should be asked: 1. If precipitation were to increase or decrease, how would it affect our housing stock? How do current precipitation patterns affect housing? • How does precipitation and “storminess” affect infrastructure related to housing? Will changes in precipitation have an impact on sanitary sewers, septic systems, and stormwater drainage? How do the proper functioning of all these systems affect the Island’s housing stock and affordability? 2. If average seasonal temperatures are altered, would it affect our housing? Are there currently any seasonal/temperature related impacts on housing? • Do isolated high-heat or cold days have an effect on housing? What will happen if patterns change? • Does the community support and employ energy efficiency measures? (Future conditions may necessitate them even more – retrofits and upgrades are expensive.) • Is affordability affected by temperature extremes? 3. If sea level were to rise, would it affect our housing stock? How do sea level and associated conditions (high tides, inundation, etc.) affect Island homes today? • Should we continue the permitting of housing in high-hazard areas without requiring a climate assessment and analysis of the resilience of the house and its systems into the future? • If we do allow building in high-hazard areas, should we require bonding of the property by the developer to avoid future cost to the community that may be incurred by the risky development? 4. Do we understand the connections between climate impacts and housing affordability? • Are there some climate-vulnerable locations on-island that should be recognized as unsuitable for affordable housing? • Should the community acknowledge that climate vulnerability could cancel out the intended affordability (i.e., avoid locations susceptible to systems failure due to changing climate or show a preference for locations where alternative energy is more easily accessed)? • Should affordable housing be co-located with access to non-motorized and public transit corridors (thereby also making transit affordable, and reducing further greenhouse gas emissions)? 5. Are lands vulnerable to wildfire known and what is the area of interface with developed areas/housing stock? 6. Are we supporting and enabling low-impact development techniques and residential green infrastructure sufficiently and without unnecessary barriers? Are we incentivizing it? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 55 37 7. Are there state or local “green” residential building requirements that can be employed on Bainbridge Island to reduce energy demand and water consumption? 8. Does COBI utilize any regulations and incentives to ensure the long-term durability and efficiency of its housing stock? 9. Should priority and incentives be given to housing development near non-motorized and public transit corridors? Social Services (inclusive of human services and cultural resources) The health, safety, welfare and quality of life of Islanders should be the priorities for our local government. By electing to include the optional elements of human services and cultural resources in the Bainbridge Island Comprehensive Plan, the City has an opportunity to raise awareness about the connection between land use planning and long-term community resilience. They also have the opportunity now to address the connection between climate change and long-term community resilience. Fostering a healthy community (both physically and mentally) will serve to increase local adaptive capacity as systems change and become strained. For example: • planning for a sustainable local food system can insulate us locally from fluctuations in global food or fuel prices or long periods of drought in other areas; • increasing conservation measures in housing stock and increasing walkability can strengthen our population and reduce local dependence on fossil fuel; • education about climate change and its impacts on health, safety and welfare should be undertaken now so that our future citizenry is prepared for the climate-changed future; and, • climate migrations to our area can occur such that social service providers could be stretched beyond capacity. As regional and international systems are stressed by climate change, our local systems will be better positioned to provide basic human needs if the community makes climate-savvy choices now. According to the 2004 COBI Cultural Resources element, the general purpose of the element is to link community cultural planning to large community issues — all shape the quality of life on Bainbridge. Also, according to the element, arts and humanities are tools for accomplishing larger community goals such as economic vitality, quality education, and community planning and design. Climate change is certainly a large community issue; therefore the cultural resources element can be applied to matters of education and awareness of its impacts and implications. Additionally, existing cultural resources can be vulnerable to changes on the ground. For example, sea level rise and slope stability may threaten art and artifacts in the coastal zone. It may be necessary for the Island to assess and locate art/artifacts and determine their climate vulnerability. See Table 8, Cultural and Human Services Implications from Climate Change, to determine what future climate related changes may affect these planning areas. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 56 38 Table 8. Cultural and Human Services Implications from Climate Change CLIMATE IMPACT CULTURAL AND HUMAN SERVICES IMPLICATIONS Precipitation  changing patterns and extremes, longer duration, and greater intensity • Changing patterns have the potential to cause inundation and localized flooding, chronic flooding, non-infiltrated runoff, erosion and landslides, which have the potential to affect the proper functioning of local infrastructure and lead to environmental degradation. Localized flooding and heavy rains can disproportionately affect low quality, older, or poorly located housing stock and increase costs for maintenance and repair. • Predicted “storminess” includes the potential for more wind storms, which increases the risk of power outages and disruption to the provision of other utilities. This can impact the provision of fair and equitable distribution of basic human services. • Sanitary sewers and community septic systems will be impacted by both heavy precipitation and low-flow drought events. New infrastructure may be needed to remedy system failure or capacity (capital projects). Rising costs may impact the equitable distribution of basic human services. Temperature  more extremes and prolonged summer highs • Higher temperatures and seasonal changes will increase the frequency and duration of droughts leading to increased demand for water. Water shortages and/or increased costs for supply may result. Water as “an essential life need,” should be a concern of the human services element. • As temperatures increase and there are longer drought periods, there is an increased risk of wildfire. Cultural resources and human service providers may be affected. • Stress and changes to agriculture and food production systems may result from changes in the growing season caused by increasing temperatures. Sea Level Rise  Projected Mean 2030: +2.6 in. (+/- 2.2 in) 2050: +6.5 in. (+/- 4.1 in) 2100: +24.3 in. (+/- 11.5 in) • Coastal zone resources and shoreline stability are likely to be compromised by rising seas. Outright loss of shoreline lands may result from inundation. Coastal art and artifacts may be vulnerable. Human service facilities may be vulnerable. • Saltwater intrusion can affect groundwater and drinking water supply and result in water shortages. Water quality can be affected by saltwater inundation/flooding of sanitary sewer and septic systems. Water as “an essential life need,” should be a concern of the human services element. Vegetation changes  shifts will occur in habitat suitability as a factor of changing temperature and precipitation • Long-term temperature and precipitation trend changes will cause shifts in vegetation and habitats on the Island, which will impact agricultural operations and recreational gardeners alike, both of which will need to adapt to changes in crop suitability and species tolerance. • Changes in agriculture production costs, output and composition may result in higher food prices. RELEVANT NON-CLIMATE DATA THAT MAY AFFECT THE GOALS OF THIS ELEMENT Population changes  account for anticipated increase or decrease due to climate refugees • Increases in Island population will place increased demands and stress upon all human services. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 57 39 Questions to Consider for Social Services Adaptation The implications identified in Table 8 should raise awareness of the fact that the provision of human services and our links to cultural resources that help define us are at risk. In order to comprehend the climate vulnerability of cultural resources and human services on Bainbridge Island we should ask: 1. If precipitation patterns were to increase or decrease, how might they impact cultural resources or human services? How does current precipitation (patterns and amounts) affect them? • What would be the effect of an increase in intensity of rainfall/storminess? • What would be the effect of increased periods of drought on these community resources? 2. If average seasonal temperatures were to shift, how might they impact our cultural resources or human services? • Are there currently any seasonal/temperature related impacts? • Do isolated high-heat or cold days impact cultural resources or human services? • Can the community absorb increased costs of heating and cooling? Is this a human services issue to consider? 3. How do sea level and associated conditions (high tides, inundation, etc.) impact the Island today? If sea level were to rise how might it impact our cultural resources or human services? • Are there stationary cultural resources located within the high-hazard coastal zone? • Are there human services or cultural facilities located in places that may be subjected to inundation or storm surge? 4. Population growth places more demands on human services, as does a more stressed, displaced, underprivileged, or under-employed population. Climate refugees or migrations may affect Bainbridge Island, thus increasing the demand for human services. Is there any pre-planning or capacity building that should be undertaken? 5. If food systems become stressed by climate factors, prices will increase, placing stress on lower-income families who are less financially resilient, triggering a need for more services. Is there any pre-planning or capacity building that should be undertaken? 6. As temperature and precipitation patterns change (more frequent and prolonged drought) the risk of wildfire will increase. Are cultural or human service resources and facilities located in or near wildfire risk areas? 7. Can we create a “watch list” of cultural resources and human services that exhibit climate vulnerability? What facilities and systems will be affected as conditions change over time? 8. Is our educational system preparing students for citizenship and employment in a climate- changed future? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 58 40 Actions with Real Impact: What We Can Do Now There are three action steps that should be paramount and undertaken by the City of Bainbridge Island immediately. They are not small or easy steps, but they will begin the adaptation planning process and enable a foundation on which Bainbridge Island has the chance to build a climate-savvy and resilient community. They are: Action One: Create a Climate Change Task Force. This involves designation of the leaders, managers and staff that should incorporate climate change and community resilience into their duties. This will enable climate change considerations to be mainstreamed into the actions and decisions of Bainbridge Island into the future. Action Two: Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification (CAC). This requires evidence that any project proponent has assessed future site/operating conditions and determined climate readiness, including the avoidance of projected vulnerabilities. Such certification should be applied to and required in any City fiscal or permitting decision. Action Three: Apply your understanding of how climate change will affect Bainbridge Island. Use the BICIA and Table 9 in particular to support these efforts. 1. Integrate climate information into our decision-making processes and continuously update access and understanding of the latest information. 2. Map all known and future vulnerable areas, showing overlays/intersections with critical facilities, ecosystems and infrastructure. This visual tool will enable us to apply our understanding of the climate changes that will have a locational effect on Bainbridge Island. Many implications of climate change cannot be mapped, however for those that can be pinpointed they should be made clear. 3. Track the application and efficacy of climate-savvy actions in order to modify and update as needed to keep Bainbridge Island on a path to resilience. By explicitly considering climate change in our local planning and decision-making, Bainbridge Island will be on a path to a resilient future. However, these actions must start today as the decisions we are currently making will set the stage for our ability to respond in the future. An initial suite of implementation recommendations for our community can be found in the following table, Table 9: Adaptation Planning Implementation. We invite the community to waste no time in bringing these actions to life and making Bainbridge Island climate savvy. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 59 41 Table 9. Adaptation Planning Implementation Planning Sector Main actions in this sector that will effect Mitigation Main actions in this sector that will support Adaptation Implementation / Tool Kit Actions (implementing authorities in addition to COBI are listed in italics) Government Operations • Create a Climate Change Task Force to oversee and organize climate change preparation and response strategies across the Island. (BIFD, BIPD, BIMPRD, BISD) • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification (CAC). Such CAC should be required before any fiscal or permitting decision could be final. A CAC would be evidence that any government action, project proponent, fiscal decision, etc. has assessed future climate conditions and determined durability of a choice, including the avoidance of projected vulnerabilities. Criteria for determination are suggested in the planning sector rows that follow here. Land Use Conserve natural resource lands and ecosystem functions by preventing land conversion to sprawling or incremental development. Focus all new growth as infill or compact development. Reduce consumption of fossil fuels. Locate all new growth outside of future hazard prone area. Assess any proposed project for its ability to function in the long term under climate change. Minimize or avoid potential for future threats to the people, property, environment and economy of Bainbridge Island. Utilize all Island-based hazard mitigation planning, shoreline and floodplain management processes, and capital facilities planning to identify and address local climate change concerns. • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification. Include criteria for Land Use: o Require use of the Bainbridge Island Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment (BIHIVA) and create other local hazard identification processes as tools to determine suitability of a site for development or investment. (BIFD, BISD, BIMPRD) • Analyze Floodplain Management Plans and Hazard Mitigation Plans to be sure climatic scenarios are adequate and considered in analysis. • Promote compact development through tax incentives and other tools. • Promote walkability and prioritize multimodal, non-fossil fuel dependent transportation. • Require the use of well-designed ecosystem based Cluster, Open Space Residential Design, or Conservation Subdivision regulations for any residential subdivision on-island. • Create specific climate-informed Low Impact Development regulations and require use in all new or re-development. • Participate fully in the Kitsap County Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan (MHMP) planning and update processes (due to be updated in 2017) and integrate the findings into local decision-making. (BIFD, Kitsap County Department of Emergency Management, FEMA) o Work to have Climate Change included as a hazard category in the future MHMP updates (currently climate change is not included as a hazard category in the county’s plan). • Participate in the process and fully incorporate climate change hazards into the BI Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment (BIHIVA) (to be updated by BIFD in 2016). (BIFD, FEMA) • Utilize available land use tools to increase the preservation of land for future 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 60 42 Planning Sector Main actions in this sector that will effect Mitigation Main actions in this sector that will support Adaptation Implementation / Tool Kit Actions (implementing authorities in addition to COBI are listed in italics) agriculture, resource migration, open space, and population changes (including an Agricultural Resource zoning classification). • Update and implement the recommendations of the 2008 Bainbridge Island Open Space Study. (BIMPRD, Bainbridge Island Land Trust) Transportation Reduce consumption of fossil fuels. Link to land use and reduce sprawling development. Prioritize walkability, non- motorized transit and mass transit, and discourage single occupancy vehicle use. Promote compact development. Place transportation infrastructure in locations that will not be affected by climate impacts • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification. Include criteria for Transportation: o Require any new transportation infrastructure to be located outside of vulnerable areas (ensure long-term function). o Projects must include non-motorized transportation components such as trailway linkages and walkability, or include impact fees. • Create a structure of impact fees for all development permits. • Fund and implement the Non-motorized Transportation Plan. • Adopt a Transportation Improvement Plan that prioritizes mass transit or, pedestrian, bicycle and other non-motorized modes over single occupancy vehicle use. • Utilize land use regulations and incentives that promote compact, non-single occupancy vehicle-dependent development. • Inventory and create a “Watch List” of vulnerable transportation infrastructure (combine with the list for other community infrastructure). o Create a prioritized plan to relocate or retrofit vulnerable infrastructure. Housing Increase sustainable and green building design (which reduce energy consumption). Prioritize siting in locations that are not motorized- vehicle dependent for access to jobs, education and commerce. Development of affordable housing should require affordability over time (if not energy- efficient under future climate scenarios, will affordability remain?) • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification. Include criteria for Housing: o Location of structures out of vulnerable areas o Use of sustainable building practices o Use of renewable energy and conservation measures/features o Creation of non-motorized transportation corridor connections • Adopt Green Building Codes such as energy- and water-efficient fixtures and appliances, increased insulation requirements, including windows, etc. • Enable use of green roofs, greywater and Low Impact Development methods on site. • Utilize bonds in residential permitting within known hazard areas to cover potential future remediation. Water Resources and Environment Retain vegetation and tree canopy that serves to enhance the local air and Plan improvements, source development, and stormwater infrastructure- • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification Include criteria for Water Resources and Environment: o Mandate demonstrated consideration of present and future conditions 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 61 43 Planning Sector Main actions in this sector that will effect Mitigation Main actions in this sector that will support Adaptation Implementation / Tool Kit Actions (implementing authorities in addition to COBI are listed in italics) water quality. Maintain ecosystem function and ability of systems and habitats to migrate and function over time. based on future precipitation scenarios. Implement supply and demand-side water conservation. Protect ecosystems and their buffers. Retain vegetation and tree canopy that serves to reduce stormwater runoff, promote ground water recharge and stabilize local climate. Pay attention to shifting species in revegetation, restoration and other projects. Utilize all compact and Low Impact Development techniques (which reduce impervious and engineered area). in any water resource calculations, studies, and permit approvals. (Require inclusion of future projected conditions/climate scenarios to understand future resource conditions, including groundwater recharge rates, stormwater runoff calculations, etc.) • Require any water resource data gathering and analysis to include metrics that are sensitive to and identifiable as markers of climate changes. • Continue the Groundwater Monitoring Program and periodically review its program parameters. • Update and reassess the predictive findings of the Groundwater Models prepared for COBI by Aspect Consulting in 2015-2016. Adopt the recommendations of Aspect Consulting for future carrying capacity assessments. • Set no-net groundwater extraction rates to ensure maximized aquifer recharge and to stay below COBI early warning levels (balance the aquifer stressors of increased population and rising demand, decreased recharge from climate change, and rising sea levels). • Require a Hydrologic Assessment Report that includes future climate scenarios for any proposed development projects. • Ensure full protections under the Critical Areas Ordinance, review and revise as necessary. • Adopt Critical Aquifer Recharge Area and Wellhead Protection Regulations. • Adopt Low Impact Development standards and remove regulatory barriers to encourage green infrastructure, which can lessen stress on our natural systems (e.g., to promote on-site water retention/infiltration and slow stormwater runoff rates). • Adopt Lot Coverage Maximums (adjusted to lesser values in aquifer recharge and other sensitive areas). • Develop tree canopy and vegetation retention requirements (balanced with FireWise vegetation-free envelopes). (BIFD) • Place importance on ground cover and understory for their water retention capacity. • Enable systems and techniques that reduce energy and conserve resources (e.g., greywater systems, green roofs, use of green energy technology). • Conduct a wildfire vulnerability survey of public lands/interfaces on the island and create a plan for wildfire management. (BIFD) • Require drought-tolerant plantings. • City tree planting efforts should require use of species that will persist for expected lifetime. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 62 44 Planning Sector Main actions in this sector that will effect Mitigation Main actions in this sector that will support Adaptation Implementation / Tool Kit Actions (implementing authorities in addition to COBI are listed in italics) Infrastructure2 Require utilities to use renewable energy sources. Reduce energy use and water use. Ensure that climate vulnerabilities/variabilities inform infrastructure improvements, or siting and design. Ensure long-term return on investments and continued function by not investing in climate vulnerable locations. Increase requirements on utility providers for conservation of conventional and conversion to renewable sources of energy. • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification. Include criteria for infrastructure: o Demonstrated consideration of present and future climate-vulnerable site conditions in any infrastructure capacity calculations, siting and permit approvals. o Require inclusion of future projected conditions/climate scenarios to understand future resource conditions, including groundwater recharge rates, stormwater runoff calculations, supply conditions, and location within a vulnerable area. • Enable conversion to a utility dependent on renewable energy sources. • Prioritize and develop expedited permitting and funding for infrastructure that will decrease fossil fuel emissions and support adaptation. o Priority given to infrastructure that increases walkability, is located in Winslow or neighborhood service centers, and allows access by multi- modes. o Provide incentives through permitting for use of renewable energy providers and systems. • Identify and map infrastructure that is located within hazard areas and create a “Watch List” of vulnerable infrastructure (combine with the list for transportation infrastructure). o Create a prioritized plan to relocate or retrofit vulnerable infrastructure. • Adopt Low Impact Development techniques and remove regulatory barriers to encourage green infrastructure, which can lessen stress on natural systems. Economy Support renewable energy development and those that utilize it in their business practices. Do not permit location of industry/business on-island Understand the vulnerability of local systems3 to climate change and take measures to reduce the potential for exposure, damage and loss. • Study and identify economic and financial vulnerabilities of the community and how they are likely to be worsened by climate change impacts. • Enable incentives for actions that decrease vulnerability of the local economy. • Employ creative funding mechanisms that support and coordinate citywide action to address climate and hazard mitigation. Develop a steady-state funding mechanism. 2 Infrastructure is a category that includes myriad capital facilities and services that a government typically provides to its citizens, including utilities, roads, public buildings, schools, parks, water, sewer & stormwater systems, and first responder services. 3 Local systems include businesses, tourism, infrastructure, housing stock, transportation – disruption and losses in any of these sectors will negatively affect the local and regional economy. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 63 45 Planning Sector Main actions in this sector that will effect Mitigation Main actions in this sector that will support Adaptation Implementation / Tool Kit Actions (implementing authorities in addition to COBI are listed in italics) that are dependent on or high-volume users of fossil fuel. Investment in a food system based on local production and one that is not industrialized and extractive. Encourage a local economy that is not based on vulnerable resources or sectors that will be compromised by climate change. Encourage diversity and independence of the local economy. Investment in a food system based on local production that is adaptive to Washington’s anticipated climate changes. Education about the importance of early awareness and action in order to create resilience. • Invest in the development of a local food system: o Create an Agricultural Zoning classification. o Use land use tools such as PDR, TDR and tax incentives to preserve farmland. o Incentivize farm practices that employ resource (fuel, water) conservation methods and are not extractive or chemically dependent. o Support markets for local farmers to sell goods locally. • Form partnerships with local organizations and action groups to develop a coordinated public outreach campaign intended to increase community awareness of the issue of climate change in their own lives and on our community’s long-term resilience. o Create materials (including online and signage) promoting sustainable features of our community that make us more resilient to climate change, and encourage businesses, patrons and visitors to take their own actions to reduce the effects of climate change. o Engage the local media to ask questions about climate implications in coverage of local planning issues. (Chamber of Commerce, Downtown Business Association, Sustainable Bainbridge) Cultural and Human Services4 Ensure that services are located and provided such that transportation and energy use are minimized. Anticipate and be ready to accommodate the rise in demand for the provision of human services if things “get bad” due to climatic changes. Education about climate change and the impacts and implications on the health, safety, welfare and future of all to create a ready and adaptive citizenry. • Develop and require a Climate Assessment Certification. Include criteria for cultural and human services: o Create criteria for public cultural and human service projects that ensure they are not vulnerable to climate change. • Create incentives for on-island agriculture and disincentives for the conversion of agricultural landscapes to other uses. Recognize the importance of a robust local food production system as a human service. • Incorporate climate change into school curricula to help prepare our students for their careers and citizenship in a climate-changed world. (BISD) 4 Human services are those that assist people in meeting the essential life needs of food, clothing, shelter and access to health care. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 64 46 Literature Cited American Planning Association-Washington Chapter. 2015 November. Planning for Climate Change Adaptation: A WA-APA Discussion Paper about Community Resilience. www.washington-apa.org/address-climate-change Bainbridge Island Fire Department (BIFD), Western Washington University, March 2012. Bainbridge Island Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Assessment. Bainbridge Island Open Space Study. October 2008. http://www.bainbridgewa.gov/documentcenter/view/5507 Bannister, P., Flynn, T. 2016, March 25 as revised. Aspect Consulting Memorandum to Cami Apfelbeck re: Bainbridge Island Groundwater Model: Aquifer System Carrying Capacity Assessment (Task 3 Scenario). Aspect Consulting Project #140369. http://www.bainbridgewa.gov/DocumentCenter/View/6542 Bannister, P., Flynn, T. 2015, December 21. Aspect Consulting Memorandum to Cami Apfelbeck re: Review Findings and Recommendations (Task 2) and Critical Aquifer Recharge Area Assessment (Task 3 Scenario). Aspect Consulting Project #140369. http://www.bainbridgewa.gov/DocumentCenter/View/6235 Center for Sustainable Energy. Case Study: Lancaster Zero Net Energy Goal. https://energycenter.org/case-study-lancasters-zne-goal. Accessed June 3, 2016. City of Lancaster. n.d. website. http://www.cityoflancasterca.org/residents/lancaster-choice- energy. Accessed May 31, 2016. Coastal Zone Atlas of Washington, Volume 10. 1979. Kitsap County. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/femaweb/kitsap.htm City of Bainbridge Island (COBI). Local Comprehensive Plan. 2004. http://www.bainbridgewa.gov/162/Comprehensive-Plan EPA. 2016. Wyckoff: Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment. Document ID 100010233. https://semspub.epa.gov/work/10/100010233.pdf EPA. 2016b. Bainbridge Island Aquifer System, WA. https://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/water.nsf/Sole+Source+Aquifers/bainbridge_ssa Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 2015. Risk Report. Prepared for Kitsap County including the Cities of Bremerton, Bainbridge, Port Orchard, Poulsbo, the Port Gamble S’Klallam Indian Reservation, the Suquamish Tribe, and Unincorporated Kitsap County. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). n.d.a website. www.fema.gov/multi- hazard-mitigation-planning. Accessed May 2016. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 65 47 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). n.d.b. Fact Sheet: Building Community Resilience by Integrating Hazard Mitigation into the Local Comprehensive Plan. https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1908-25045-9918/factsheet1.pdf Accessed May 2016. Mauger, G.S., J.H. Casola, H.A. Morgan, R.L. Struach, B. Jones, B. Curry, T.M. Busch Isaksen, L. Whitely Binder, M.B. Krosby and A.K. Snover. 2015. State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound. Report prepared for the Puget Sound Partnership and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle. doi:10.7915/CIG93777D). http://cses.washington.edu/picea/mauger/ps-sok/PS-SoK_2015.pdf Metropolitan Council. 2016. Local Planning Handbook. http://www.metrocouncil.org/Handbook/Plan-Elements/Resilience.aspx NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2015. Digital Coast Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding Impacts Viewer. https://coast.noaa.gov/slr/. Accessed June 2016. Regional Challenges Overview Paper: Climate Change. Central Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy (ROSS). 2015. http://openspacepugetsound.org/ross-reports Scrafford, M., Bannister, P. 2015, December 21. Aspect Consulting Memorandum to Cami Apfelbeck re: Task 1—Hydrogeological Assessment of Groundwater Quantity, Quality, and Production. Aspect Consulting Project #140369. http://www.bainbridgewa.gov/DocumentCenter/View/6236 United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2011. Conceptual Model and Numerical Simulations of the Groundwater-Flow System of Bainbridge Island, Washington. WA Department of Ecology. n.d.a website. Shoreline Master Program. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/sea/shorelines/smp/. Accessed June 2016. WA Department of Ecology. n.d.b website. Climate Change: What’s Happening in Washington State? http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/whatshappening.htm. Accessed April 20, 2016. WA Department of Ecology. n.d.c website. Low Impact Development (LID) Resources. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/stormwater/municipal/LID/Resources.html. Accessed May 6, 2016. WA Department of Ecology. n.d.d website. Climate Change Impacts. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/2012ccrs/impacts.htm. Accessed April 15, 2016. Revised Code of Washington, Title 36, Comprehensive plans—Mandatory elements (Effective until September 1, 2016). RCW 36.70A.070(1). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 66 48 Appendix 1: The How and Why to the Bainbridge Island Climate Impact Assessment Project Activities 1. Research and general knowledge: This Climate Impact Assessment was informed by published climate data, general research, and expert and community knowledge of the project team. 2. Community Elicitation Workshop: EcoAdapt held a community elicitation workshop on November 18, 2015, in collaboration with the City of Bainbridge Island and Sustainable Bainbridge during which we solicited community input and fostered education about climate impacts and implications that will affect Bainbridge Island. Fifty-five participants attended, representing the general public, state government, local government, local and regional nonprofit organizations, and local businesses. Workshop participants were split into teams where they considered each Comprehensive Plan element in the context of climate change data and then determined relevant impacts and the implications those impacts would have on each element’s issues. Participants were given planning questions to guide their evaluation of the climate vulnerability of each element, and in turn added their local knowledge and concerns by recording their thoughts and table discussion as follows: individual issue of concern; how they understand climate change to affect their issue of concern; ideas as to how the impact of climate change can be reduced; and how they anticipated that change could happen (such as with partners, funds, regulations, etc.) Materials were prepared for use during the process that included: • Analysis, depiction, and presentation of the climate science and findings that are specifically relevant to Bainbridge Island and show what climatic changes are expected to affect local ecosystems, and by extension the implications of those impacts on land use planning and related comprehensive planning issues. • Briefing documents for each Comprehensive Plan Element were created to inform the participants of Washington State planning requirements, 2004 local goals, specific climate impacts and implications that affect an element, and to prepare them for thought and discussion by providing planning questions to guide evaluation of the climate vulnerability of every element. (For a full list of participants and materials see http://ecoadapt.org/workshops/BICIA- workshop). 3. Comprehensive Plan element review: The EcoAdapt project team provided the Planning Commission and city staff continuing input on each element throughout their review and update process (August 2015 through June 2016). This included a thorough reading of each element of the 10 elements through the lens of climate change, and suggested revisions within existing text where it would be appropriate to recognize climate change, future conditions, and the climate impacts on what each element is intended to plan for, protect, and preserve. In other words, advice was given on how to mainstream climate mitigation and adaptation goals, policies, and implementation as appropriate throughout the City’s long-term planning 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 67 49 framework. Project team members also provided public comment on this subject at numerous Planning Commission meeting during this timeframe. Why did EcoAdapt conduct the BICIA? Beginning in April 2015, and continuing through December 2016, the City of Bainbridge Island is undergoing an update of its 2004 Comprehensive Plan. This process has provided a golden opportunity to make changes that would improve the community’s long-term outcomes. EcoAdapt understands that by planning for its future while recognizing how climatic conditions will be changing, this Island community has chosen to minimize the effects of climate change on its social systems and environmental surroundings. With ambitions such as sustainability almost ubiquitous in community management, considering the effects of climate change (such as sea level rise, increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns) and the responses to them (such as increasing use of water, reduced aquifer recharge, changing vegetation and species ranges, movement of more people into our region) is essential for durability. Considering the implications of such changes in the update of its Comprehensive Plan, Multi-hazard Mitigation Plan and any other planning, and then making it part of policy and management actions is the only way to ensure a sustainable future in the face of climate change. The need for including climate change in community Comprehensive Plans was called for in the Puget Sound Regional Open Space Strategy (openspacepugetsound.org) Climate Change Challenge paper (openspacepugetsound.org/sites/default/files/151026_ClimateChange.pdf ). Responses to climate change require activities in two areas: adaptation and mitigation. Mitigation is the action we take to reduce the root cause of climate change (greenhouse gas emissions predominantly from burning fossil fuels for electricity generation, heating, and transportation). Adaptation is the action we take to reduce the effects climate change has on the world around us. Effective long-term outcomes require that we do both. The City of Bainbridge Island has an opportunity to create a Comprehensive Plan that maps out goals and policies that allow for a durable future for the Island. Community members were invited to be part of the Comprehensive Plan process, including making suggestions about how to incorporate climate change. EcoAdapt has created products (Element Briefs) to support individuals and organizations as they think about each component of the Island Comprehensive Plan. Comprehensive Plan elements include: Land Use, Utilities, Transportation, Capital Facilities, Environment, Economy, Culture, Human Resources, Housing and Water Resources – each has considerations for climate change and needs to be considered through a mitigation and adaptation lens during this 2015-16 update process in order to help make Bainbridge Island more resilient. The City of Bainbridge Island is also proposing, for the first time, to add a Guiding Principle to the Comprehensive Plan specifically highlighting the challenges of and opportunities to address climate change. Creating a Guiding Principle that can truly guide us into the future will be vital to the success of our interpretation and use of the Comprehensive Plan in creating policy and code to guide management and daily decisions by the City. The new Guiding Principle, if adopted, would provide a framework under which the City could make climate-savvy decisions that enable our small island to adapt to whatever climate changes may occur. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 68 page 1 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Report City of BellinghamClimate ProtectionAction Plan Emissions Reduction Measures 2018 Update 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 69 page 2 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 70 page 3 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction A Letter from Mayor Linville More than ever before, local governments have the responsibility to protect our environment. As federal and state support dwindles, cities are on the front line. I am proud to support a vision of using clean and renewable energy in our community. As Mayor of Bellingham and a former Washington State Legislator, I know firsthand the harmful effects that pollution, the high cost of energy, and climate change have on residents and families throughout Bellingham and Washington state. I have worked on environmental issues for more than 20 years. I was a sponsor and key negotiator for new state pipeline-safety laws after the tragic pipeline spill that killed three young people in Bellingham. I created the state’s LIFT (Local Infrastructure Funding Tool) program and secured $25 million in state matching funds to help clean up Bellingham’s waterfront after decades of industrial use. I sponsored the Landscape Management Plan, which was created to protect Lake Whatcom. I also was an original member of Governor Gregoire’s first climate action council. Throughout my years of service, I have never lost focus on the goal: To create a better place for our children and grandchildren. In 2007, Bellingham was recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the state’s first Green Power Community. Since then, the City of Bellingham has continued to invest in sustainability, and we have a lot to be proud of on our progress towards providing a healthy community. • City of Bellingham street lights are now all LED, resulting in brighter, safer streets -- as well as an annual energy savings of approximately $200,000 and a hefty $442,443 rebate check from Puget Sound Energy. • Because transportation accounts for more than a third of our greenhouse gas emissions, we now have 12 hybrid and electric vehicles and plan to purchase more as we renew our fleet. • We continue to implement the City’s Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plans, which make travel by foot and bike more accessible and interconnected. • The City funded $9 million to the Whatcom Transportation Authority’s Enhanced Transit Service, including Sunday services, from 2010 to 2016. • We are getting guidance on the best placement for solar panels, which will be possible thanks in part to a $760,000 grant from the Northwest Clean Air Agency. • This year, we began planning for resource recovery of biosolids to replace incineration at the Post Point Wastewater Treatment Plant. • And finally, as Mayor I have demonstrated the City’s commitment on the international stage by joining the U.S. Climate Mayors as well as the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy to uphold the Paris Climate Agreement goals. We are committed to working towards our climate reduction targets, pursuing actions that will achieve those targets to reduce emissions, and reporting back on progress to our community. I believe that this updated Climate Action Plan will help lead the transition away from fossil fuels to renewable energy, and at the same time improve the lives of our residents and visitors, grow our local economy, and create a more sustainable and equitable future for Bellingham. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 71 page 4 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 72 page 5 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction Contents List of Figures .............................................................6 List of Tables ..............................................................8 Acknowledgements ........................................................9 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Executive Summary ......................................................12 Background .............................................................24 Climate Science Update ...............................................24 Climate Policy Update .................................................27 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Update .......................................32 Emissions Inventories ................................................32 Municipal Emissions Trends ..........................................32 Municipal Emissions Analysis by Sector ..............................33 Community Emissions Trends ........................................34 Community Emissions Analysis by Sector .............................35 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Goals ..............................38 2018 Climate Action Plan Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Core Climate Action Strategies ...........................................40 Emissions Forecast & Reduction Measures ................................41 All Municipal Emissions Reduction Measures (Past, Present, & Future) ....46 All Community Emissions Reduction Measures(Past, Present, & Future) ..49 Municipal Measures .....................................................52 Energy Efficiency and Conservation ..................................52 Renewable Energy ....................................................56 Transportation ........................................................58 Green Building .......................................................64 Waste Reduction ......................................................66 Land Use ..............................................................68 Community Measures ...................................................70 Energy Efficiency and Conservation ..................................70 Renewable Energy ...................................................84 Transportation .......................................................89 Green Building ........................................................95 Waste Reduction ......................................................97 Land Use ............................................................99 Appendix: Emissions Inventory Methods .................................101 References ..............................................................104 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 73 page 6 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction List of Figures Figure 1. Cities for Climate Protection Milestones, a program of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). ..............................................13 Figure 2. Distance from average temperatures in 2016 (NASA, New York Times) .........24 Figure 3. The greenhouse effect (USGCRP 2014) ............................................25 Figure 4. Deming Glacier in 2016. The glacier has retreated 420 m from 1979 to 2015. (Figure: Mauri Pelto). .......................................................................25 Figure 5. Observations and other indicators of a changing global climate system. (IPCC 2014) ........................................................................................26 Figure 6. Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector in 2014. Total Emissions in 2014 = 6,870 Million Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent .....................................28 Figure 7. Timeline of City of Bellingham climate policies ..................................30 Figure 8. Estimated Bellingham municipal emissions (tons CO2e) from 2000 to 2015, with and without emissions reductions from purchased renewable energy credits (RECs) ........32 Figure 9. Estimated Bellingham municipal emissions (tons CO2e) by sector in 2015, including emissions from electricity use (renewable energy credit emissions offsets are omitted) .....................................................................................33 Figure 10. 2000-2015 municipal CO2e emissions by sector excluding solid waste ..........34 Figure 11. Normalized CO2e emissions from municipal sectors in 2000 and 2015 ..........34 Figure 12. Estimated Bellingham community emissions (tons CO2e) from 2000 to 2015 ......................................................................................35 Figure 13. 2015 Bellingham community CO2e missions by sector ...........................35 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 74 page 7 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction Figure 14. Estimated Bellingham community emissions (tons CO2e) by sector in 2000, 2005, 2012, and 2015. .............................................................................36 Figure 15. Per capita CO2e emissions from community sectors in 2000 and 2015 ..........37 Figure 16. City of Bellingham municipal emissions forecast by sector including proposed emissions reductions actions (see Table 1) (2015-2030). . .....................................41 Figure 17. Bellingham community emissions forecast by sector including proposed emissions reductions actions (see Table 5) (2015-2030) .................................................43 Figure 18. Total diesel and biodiesel use by city government from 2007 to 2015 .............58 Figure 19. Average daily roundtrip employee commuting vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by city worksite. ....................................................................................61 Figure 20. City of Bellingham Habitat Enhancement Sites .................................68 Figure 21. Protected Land in the Lake Whatcom Watershed ..............................69 Figure 22. Energy benchmarking and reporting allows tenants to make choices based on energy efficiency. This figure was sourced from the City of Seattle. ..........................81 Figure 23. Number of solar permits issued per year by City of Bellingham ..................84 Figure 22. Historic (2000-2014) and long-term (2016-2036) transportation mode shift goals .......................................................................................90 Figure 23. Electric vehicle charging station locations in Bellingham. .......................92 Figure 24. City of Bellingham Urban Villages ............................................100 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 75 page 8 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction List of Tables Table 1. Municipal (city government operations) and community (within city limits) progress toward climate targets (which include green power purchases). ....................12 Table 2. City of Bellingham municipal emissions goals, forecasts, and inventories (2000 - 2030) (tons CO2e)................................................................................................................ Table 3. Bellingham community emissions goals, forecasts, and inventories (2000 - 2030) (tons CO2e) .................................................................................38 Table 4. Ongoing and Proposed Municipal Emissions Reduction Measures included in Emissions Forecast. .........................................................................42 Table 5. Ongoing and Proposed Community Emissions Reduction Measures included in Community emissions forecast (continued on next two pages) ..............................44 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 76 page 9 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction Acknowledgements This report required the effort of many people across many City departments and other organizations. Thanks to all those who assisted in this process. Nathan Rice, Primary Author Kulshan Services City of Bellingham staff Anitra Accetturo Freeman Anthony Larry Bateman Kim Brown Jennifer Corfee Myron Carlson Ted Carlson Chris Comeau Clare Fogelsong Mark Gardner Riley Grant Rob Johnson Eric Johnston Renee LaCroix Cynthia May Scott Moses Chad Schulhauser Clark Williams ICLEI staff Michael Steinhoff J.R. Killigrew Puget Sound Energy Kim Gray Heather Mulligan Melvin Lie Nick Hartrich Cascade Natural Gas Monica Cowlishaw Amanda Sargent Other contributors: Jeff Aslan, Sustainable Connections Jordan Beaudin, Sustainable Connections Orion Eaton, Sustainable Connections Rose Lathrop, Sustainable Connections Alex Ramel, Stand Seth Vidaña, WWU Office of Sustainability Joel Swisher, WWU Institute for Energy Studies Booklet design and layout: Shew Design 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 77 page 10 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Introduction 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 78 page 11 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview OVERVIEW 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 79 page 12 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Executive Summary EMISSION SECTORS MONITORED Municipal Sectors • Buildings & Facilities • Fleet • Employee Commute • Streetlights • Water & Sewer Utility • Waste Bellingham Community Sectors • Residential • Commercial • Industrial • Transportation • Waste The movement to combat climate change has been gaining momentum around the world, with city governments like Bellingham leading the way in the public sector. In 2005, City Council committed to the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign and its five milestones (Figure 1). This process resulted in Bellingham’s 2007 Climate Protection Action Plan, which included emissions reduction targets for 2012 and 2020. The City has completed all five Climate Protection milestones, and this report represents the continuation of this program, reporting on progress so far and charting a course to meet new targets in 2030 and 2050. Tracking progress Bellingham’s efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions have worked. Emissions inventories show that both the municipal city government and the Bellingham community within city limits exceeded 2012 emissions targets (Table 1). However, 2015 inventories show an increase in emissions since 2012 so continuing the commitment to action is necessary to reach targets in 2020 and beyond. Table 1. Municipal (city government operations) and community (within city limits) progress toward climate targets (which include green power purchases). 2012 Target 2015 Actual Emissions 2020 Target 2030 Target 2050 Target Municipal reduction measures: 3 completed, 20 long-term ongoing -64% emissions from 2000 exceeded (-69.5%)-68.3% from 2000 -70% from 2000 -85% from 2000 -100% from 2000 Community reduction measures: 5 completed, 43 long-term ongoing -7% emissions from 2000 exceeded (-17%)-10.4% from 2000 -28% from 2000 -40% from 2000 -85% from 2000 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 80 page 13 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Municipal successes Between 2000 and 2012, municipal emissions dropped by 69.5 percent, exceeding the original target of 64 percent. This has been accomplished by implementing 23 municipal emissions reduction measures. In 2015, municipal emissions increased slightly but the City is still on track to meet the 2020 goal with continued reductions in natural gas and fleet emissions. Community successes Community emissions fell 17 percent between 2000 and 2012, exceeding the goal of a 7 percent reduction. This was made possible by implementing 48 emissions reduction measures. In 2015, community emissions increased compared to 2012, which could make it harder to reach emissions targets in 2020 and beyond. Committed action across the community will be necessary to meet these goals. Taking the Next Steps This report includes new proposed emissions reduction measures to meet emissions targets for 2020 and beyond. Looking forward, the City aims to further reduce municipal greenhouse gas emissions to 85% below 2000 levels by 2030 and 100% below 2000 levels by 2050 – making the city government carbon neutral. The new community emissions targets are 70% below 2000 levels by 2030 and 85% by 2050. Figure 1. Cities for Climate Protection Milestones, a program of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). Milestone 1 Inventoryemissions Milestone 2 Establish reductiontargets Milestone 3 Develop climateaction planMilestone 4 Implement policiesand procedures Milestone 5 Monitor and verify results 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 81 page 14 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview one vision, six strategies To reach these ambitious goals, the City has identified 24 ongoing and proposed municipal emissions reduction measures and 56 community emissions reduction measures in six core strategies. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 82 page 15 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview COMM U N I T Y MUNI C I P A LLand Use Transportation Renewable Energy Green Building Waste Reduction Energy Efficiency and Conservation 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 83 page 16 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Energy Efficiency and Conservation MUNICIPAL Buildings and Facilities generate 28 percent of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Between 2000 and 2015, emissions from Buildings and Facilities decreased 2 percent, including new municipal buildings built during that time. Emissions decreased 15 percent per full-time equivalent employee. These reductions were likely due to more than $15 million in energy efficiency upgrades to city buildings since 2007.1 Meanwhile, emissions from streetlights dropped 75 percent from 2000 to 2015 after the City upgraded 3,600 streetlights to LED (light- emitting diode) bulbs, which will save more than 2.2 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity and more than 1,000 tons of CO2e emissions every year. Looking ahead, the City will hire a building engineer to continue improving energy efficiency in city buildings and facilities, and to incorporate resource conservation measures identified in a recent energy audit of 41 city-owned buildings as appropriate. Refer to page 52 to learn more. COMMUNITY Residential and Commercial energy makes up 43 percent of community emissions. Between 2000 and 2015, Residential energy fell 13 percent. This was possible in part due to community programs like the Community Energy Challenge, which help reduce energy use in homes and businesses. Commercial energy increased by 1 percent, suggesting that more efficiency progress is possible there. Going forward, utilities and community groups will continue to offer money- saving rebates to help homeowners make their homes more energy efficient. The City will work with partners to expand these efforts across the community while exploring new ways to engage the commercial and industrial sectors, multi- family housing, and rental properties. A district energy project in the new waterfront development area would also provide significant energy savings. Refer to page 70 to learn more. Renewable Energy 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 84 page 17 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Renewable Energy MUNICIPAL Since 2006, the City has purchased renewable energy credits (RECs) from wind power to “offset” the emissions from the city government’s electricity use. Starting in 2019, the City will replace RECs with Green Direct, the new Puget Sound Energy program that will add more wind power to the grid. The City will also expand on its three solar power installations by building a new one with the help of a Northwest Clean Air Agency grant. In addition, upgrading the Post Point wastewater treatment plant biosolids process will eliminate the need for incineration and capture methane to use for energy, greatly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Refer to page 56 to learn more. COMMUNITY Solar power is booming in Bellingham: Between 2014 and 2015, annual solar installation permits increased 127 percent. In 2016, Bellingham homes and businesses generated over 3 million kWh of solar power, preventing more than 2,300 tons of CO2e emissions. That’s enough to power 225 homes for a year on nothing but the sun, even here in the rainy Northwest. In April 2016, Bellingham was recognized by Washington Governor Jay Inslee as a Northwest Solar Community for making it easier and cheaper for homeowners to install rooftop solar. Looking ahead, solar power continues to grow with the help of community solarize campaigns. Residents continue to purchase Green Power from Puget Sound Energy and others to bring more renewable energy onto the grid. Refer to page 84 to learn more. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 85 page 18 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Transportation MUNICIPAL Between 2000 and 2015, vehicle fleet emissions fell 29 percent due in part to hybrid and electric vehicles purchases. The City will purchase more hybrid and electric vehicles and will start using renewable diesel – a next generation biofuel – in the City fleet. Employee commute emissions dropped 12% between 2000 and 2015. The City will continue to promote alternative transportation for employees with free bus passes and a City bike fleet, as well as education and outreach. Refer to page 58 to learn more. COMMUNITY Transportation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Bellingham, making up 32 percent of all community emissions. Between 2000 and 2015, transportation emissions dropped by 10 percent. The City will continue to promote alternative transportation in a variety of ways: bike- and pedestrian-friendly infrastructure and planning, incentives for businesses that reduce car trips, and smart land use decisions like dense, urban villages designed around walking rather than driving (see Land Use section). Going forward, the City will explore new ways to incentivize electric vehicles and charging stations in the private sector. Community programs like Whatcom Smart Trips also promote and incentivize alternative transportation. Refer to page 89 to learn more. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 86 page 19 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Green Building MUNICIPAL Buildings and facilities generate 28 percent of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Building energy use can be reduced by following green building practices during construction. The City has committed to LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) standards for most new municipal buildings. Refer to page 64 to learn more. COMMUNITY Residential and Commercial energy makes up 43 percent of community emissions. Between 2000 and 2015, Residential energy fell 13% and Commercial energy increased 1%. The City promotes green building through permitting incentives and codes, and will ensure that these tools are consistent with updated standards. New efforts like 2030 Districts seek to reach Net Zero Carbon emissions in all new buildings, developments, and major renovations by 2030. The City will review and update codes and policies in an effort to support this ambitious goal. Refer to page 95 to learn more. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 87 page 20 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Waste Reduction MUNICIPAL The City reduces waste through recycling, composting, and reusing materials but lacks data on waste volumes over time. The City will begin monitoring its waste so that waste reduction can be tracked over time. With this data, a waste reduction plan can be developed. In addition, the City will continue to use recycled materials in its construction projects. Refer to page 66 to learn more. COMMUNITY Between 2000 and 2015, residential solid waste emissions decreased by 10 percent while commercial, industrial, and multifamily waste increased by 20 percent. The City can help reduce community waste by working with Whatcom County to increase diversion and recycling. Community programs like Sustainable Connections’ Toward Zero Waste campaign are also important efforts. Refer to page 97 to learn more. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 88 page 21 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Land Use MUNICIPAL City parks sequester carbon in trees and wetlands. The Habitat Restoration program increases carbon sequestration by planting vegetation to improve fish and wildlife habitat. The City’s Property Acquisition Program in the Lake Whatcom watershed purchases property to prevent development around our drinking water source and protect carbon-rich forests. The City will continue these purchases and will also research the feasibility of earning carbon credits for these purchases. Refer to page 68 to learn more. COMMUNITY At the community level, Goals and Policies from the City’s Comprehensive Plan aim to further decrease energy use and reduce emissions. Those land use polices promote alternative transportation and Urban villages that reduce transportation emissions by making it easier to walk, bike, and bus by concentrating a variety of services in a small area with frequent transit. High-density development accomplishes similar goals while preserving open space, reusing buildings, and saving energy and resources. Refer to page 99 to learn more. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 89 page 22 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview What’s Next The 2018 Climate Protection Action Plan update is a guiding document that provides strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the municipal and community levels. Going forward, the City will report on municipal and community emissions every two years in City performance metrics and in the mayor’s State of the City address. This plan will be updated every five years. In order to achieve these ambitious targets and lessen Bellingham’s climate impact, the entire community needs to get involved. Bellingham continues to grow – our population increased by 15 percent in the last 10 years – so reducing emissions to meet our goals will be a challenge. As we continue this important work, it is essential to recognize the many benefits of acting on climate change. By saving energy, driving less, cutting waste and pollution, and planning the community with foresight and care, Bellingham will create jobs, improve health, save money, and enrich the community, all while preserving the natural beauty and resources it relies on. Core Strategies Ongoing & Proposed Measures Municipal Community Energy Efficiency & Conservation 5 25 Renewable Energy 4 10 Transportation 12 11 Green Building 2 3 Waste Reduction 6 4 Land Use 2 3 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 90 page 23 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Core Strategies Ongoing & Proposed Measures Municipal Community Energy Efficiency & Conservation525 Renewable Energy 410 Transportation1211 Green Building23 Waste Reduction64 Land Use23 I believe that this updated Climate Action Plan will help lead the transition away from fossil fuels to renewable energy, and at the same time improve the lives of our residents and visitors, grow our local economy, and create a more sustainable and equitable future for Bellingham. —Bellingham Mayor Kelli Linville 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 91 page 24 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Background Climate Science Update 2016 was the hottest year on Earth since recordkeeping began in 1880 and the third year in a row to break that record.2 3 4 Of the 17 hottest years ever recorded, 16 have occurred since the year 2000, topping off what were likely the three hottest decades in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 1,400 years.5 6 The oceans have never been warmer, shrinking the polar sea ice extent like never before. Meanwhile, global sea level is rising faster than predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change due to the expansion of warming sea water, and melting terrestrial glaciers and ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica.7 8 More rapid ice sheet collapse could raise global sea levels more than three feet by 2100 and can’t be ruled out if emissions are not reduced.9 One recent study found that carbon emissions through 2015 make four feet of sea level rise unavoidable.10 Sea level rise could threaten up to 94,000 Washington residents and 13 million people nationwide by 2100.11 Local Impacts The planetary warming trend is evident here at home as well: 2015 marked the hottest year on record in Washington State, and impacts were felt in Bellingham and across the region. The record drought in 2015 closed salmon fishing on the South Fork of the Nooksack River in July to protect stressed fish. Warm ocean temperatures caused unprecedented toxic algae blooms, leading to widespread impacts to fisheries, including closures of recreational razor clamming in Washington and Oregon, and much of the state’s Dungeness crab harvest.12 Low snowpack, heat, and drought led to Washington’s worst-ever wildfire season, leaving over a million acres charred across the state and a $347 million firefighting bill.13 Less dire but still emblematic of a changing climate, 2015 marked the first time ever that Bellingham’s celebrated Ski to Sea race could not live up to its name: The two ski events were canceled for lack of snow. In 2016, Bellingham again saw record-breaking summer heat and historic El Nino rains, consistent with climate change predictions. 14 15 16 Isolated weather events or abnormal seasons cannot necessarily be linked to climate change, which acts on longer Figure 2. Distance from average temperatures in 2016 (NASA, New York Times) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 92 page 25 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview time scales. But the recent trends portend what is predicted to be the new normal here in Bellingham: hotter and drier summers and more intense rain events in winter, spring, and fall17 18. These changes have already caused glaciers in the North Cascades to shrink to half their size since 1900— smaller than any time in the last 4,000 years (Figure 4)19. This leads to warmer rivers that harm salmon and diminished run-off that reduces water supply. Lakes worldwide are warming faster than the oceans and the atmosphere, threatening water quality, and exacerbating existing problems close to home. The Greenhouse Effect As greenhouse gases are emitted— primarily carbon dioxide, but also methane, nitrous oxide, and others—heat is trapped in the lower atmosphere, raising surface temperatures through the greenhouse effect (Figure 3). The current rate of emissions is unprecedented in the last 66 million years due to pollution from various human activities including coal and gas-fired power plants; transportation; production of cement, metals, and other industrial products; agriculture; oil and gas production; and the degradation of forests, soils, and other ecosystems that store carbon.20 Globally, the Earth's temperature has risen almost two degrees Fahrenheit in the last 150 years.21 In summer of 2016, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere surpassed 400 parts per million (ppm) for the first time in three million years and it continues to climb well above the 350 ppm that climate scientists say is the safe level to maintain a stable climate on Earth (Figure 5c).22 23 24 Figure 3. The greenhouse effect (USGCRP 2014) Figure 4. Deming Glacier in 2016. The glacier has retreated 420 m from 1979 to 2015. (Figure: Mauri Pelto). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 93 page 26 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Puget Sound Some of that excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is being absorbed by the oceans, making sea water 26% more acidic since the start of the industrial era.25 This could have drastic ecological and economic consequences, particularly in the Pacific Northwest where the sea is naturally more acidic due to upwelling ocean currents. Already, Puget Sound shellfish growers struggle to raise oyster larvae in acidic conditions, and one of Washington's major oyster growers has moved operations to Hawaii in search of less corrosive seas. Along with reducing carbon emissions, preventing pollution in local waters is the best way to reduce these impacts.26 Facing the Future Though striking, the effects of climate change seen today are dwarfed by what's to come if emissions are not reduced quickly. In fact, even if all carbon emissions were stopped tomorrow, the climate would continue changing for some time due to the amount of carbon dioxide and warming already in the system.27 All these signs point to one undeniable truth: Climate change is well underway and we must speed our efforts to lessen its impact. At the same time, we must work to adapt to a new world. The cost of inaction will be measured locally in lives lost to extreme weather events, homes flooded by storms, infrastructure damage on a rising sea, glaciers melted, salmon runs gone extinct, fishing jobs dried up. Figure 5. Observations and other indicators of a changing global climate system. (IPCC 2014) Observations: (a) Annually and globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature anomalies relative to the average over the period 1986 to 2005. Colors indicate different data sets. (b) Annually and globally averaged sea level change relative to the average over the period 1986 to 2005 in the longest-running dataset. Colors indicate different data sets. All datasets are aligned to have the same value in 1993, the first year of satellite altimetry data (red). Where assessed, uncertainties are indicated by coloured shading. (c) Atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2, green), methane (CH4, orange) and nitrous oxide (N2O, red) determined from ice core data (dots) and from direct atmospheric measurements (lines). Indicators: (d) Global anthropogenic CO2 emissions from forestry and other land use as well as from burning of fossil fuel, cement production and flaring. Cumulative emissions of CO2 from these sources and their uncertainties are shown as bars and whiskers, respectively, on the right hand side. The global effects of the accumulation of CH4 and N2O emissions are shown in panel c. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 94 page 27 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Despite these dire predictions, scientists say it's not too late to protect our climate. And there are signs of progress in the fight against climate change. Climate Policy Update Global Climate Policy In 2015, for the first time, global greenhouse gas emissions did not increase despite a growing world economy.28 In May 2015, Pope Francis released a ground-breaking, 200-page document declaring climate change to be a moral issue of great concern. Such recognition marked a turning point in the global conversation on the gravity of climate change and the urgency to act now to cut carbon pollution. In December 2015, all but two countries in the world signed on to the Paris Climate Agreement to limit global warming to less than two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees F) above pre-industrial levels, and to stop the rise of greenhouse gas emissions as quickly as possible. This marked an important step toward global climate action, but critics say it’s not nearly enough to spur rapid emissions cuts since the combined voluntary emissions reduction pledges miss the Agreement’s two degree target29. Required five-year reviews of each country’s pledge may bolster emissions reductions as renewable energy becomes more affordable and climate impacts become harder to ignore. The Paris Agreement also increased developed countries’ aid to poorer countries. However, on June 1, 2017, President Trump removed the United States federal government from the Paris Climate Agreement and is seeking to nullify the obligation to contribute aid to other less developed countries. When this policy takes effect in 2020, the U.S. will be the only world government not participating in the Paris Agreement, since the original two holdouts, Syria and Nicaragua, joined in November of 2017. Responding to the President’s announcement withdrawing the federal government from the Paris Agreement, dozens of cities, states, and U.S. corporations have joined the We Are Still In campaign declaring their continued commitment to meeting the reduction goals of the Paris Agreement. On June 5, 2017, Bellingham Mayor Kelli Linville signed on to the Mayor’s National Climate Action Agenda in support of the Paris Climate Agreement. Leading up to the Paris climate talks, the City of Bellingham also signed on to the United Nations Compact of Mayors, a global campaign to strengthen cities’ commitments to climate action. The 680 participating cities are committed to developing climate action and 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 95 page 28 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview adaptation plans, and to monitor and report emissions. The World Climate Conference COP23 was held in Bonn Germany in November of 2017. With every nation in the world — save the U.S. — formally committed to the Paris agreement, COP23 drew an estimated 25,000 participants representing nations, subnational governments, businesses, schools, universities, NGOs and faith communities. Washington Governor Inslee and the governors of Oregon and California were invited by COP23 President Bainimarama to speak as representatives of the United States Climate Alliance. During the conference, work progressed on the implementation guidelines for the Paris Agreement that will be finalized in 2020. Another significant outcome was the establishment of the Talanoa Dialogue, a mechanism to raise the level of ambition needed to reach the two degrees Celsius target by bringing together contributions from science, industry, and the civil sector. Despite the changes to the U.S. position on climate change, the U.S. federal government delegation continued to support past U.S. climate policy positions. Federal Climate Policy in Transition Like the global economy, growth of the U.S. economy is no longer directly linked to carbon emissions. Since 2007, U.S. Gross Domestic Product has grown by 12 percent, while energy consumption has fallen by 3.6 percent.30 Wind and solar power are booming as they become more affordable, and coal production and consumption are in decline. Renewable energy is now a major part (22%) of the U.S. power mix, with 244 gigawatts of installed capacity across the country, an 83% increase from 2007 levels.31 32 Meanwhile, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions are falling. Total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions hit a 25-year low in 2016, down 12% from their peak in 2007. The U.S. is now almost halfway toward its Paris Agreement pledge to reduce national emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025.33 In 2013, President Obama put in place a federal Climate Action Plan to cut carbon emissions, prepare for climate change impacts, and lead international climate protection efforts. If fully implemented, it would cut nearly 6 billion tons of carbon pollution through 2030.34 The plan furthers the 2012 fuel efficiency standards for cars and trucks, which could avoid 1 billion tons of carbon pollution by doubling efficiency by 2025.35 The plan also calls for investments in energy efficient buildings and technology, accelerating renewable energy development on public lands, improving low- income access to solar power, cutting Electricity (30%) Commercial & Residential (12%) Agriculture(9%) Industry (21%) Transportation(26%) Figure 6. Total U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Economic Sector in 2014. Total Emissions in 2014 = 6,870 Million Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 96 page 29 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview methane emissions from fossil fuel production, and protecting carbon-rich ecosystems.36 The fate of the federal Climate Action Plan is so far unclear under President Trump. In 2015, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Power Plan to cut carbon emissions from electricity generation by 32 percent from 2005 levels by 2030 (about 900 million tons per year). This reduction in air pollution would prevent more than 3,500 premature deaths, 1,700 heart attacks, and 90,000 asthma attacks in children per year, according to EPA.37 38 In March of 2015, the City of Bellingham joined a coalition of local governments around the country submitting an amicus brief to the U.S. Supreme Court in support of the Clean Power Plan. Then, in early 2016, the Supreme Court halted implementation of the Clean Power Plan pending judicial review at the request of 29 states and state agencies. In March 2017, President Donald Trump signed an Executive Order to revoke the Clean Power Plan and other climate policies.39 This move appears to put the U.S. emissions reduction goal under the Paris Agreement out of reach.40 The controversial Keystone XL oil pipeline that would bring carbon- intensive tar sands oil from Canada to the Gulf Coast was approved by President Trump in March 2017.41 He has also reversed President Obama’s decision to halt the Dakota Access Pipeline after months of sustained protests over water quality threats to local tribes. Given these and other significant setbacks to federal climate policy, city and state governments along with major U.S. corporations are now leading U.S. efforts to reduce emissions and prevent catastrophic climate change. State Climate Policy Governor Jay Inslee, with support from many leaders in the state legislature, has championed significant greenhouse gas reduction policy in Washington State and beyond. In January 2017, the Governor’s Clean Air Rule went into effect, capping state carbon emissions and regulating the state’s largest greenhouse gas emitters. The rule also created incentives for investments to reduce fossil fuel use and adopt clean energy. Washington is the first state to use its Clean Air Act authority to fight climate change after ambitious cap-and-trade legislation failed in 201542 43 44. The rule is now facing legal challenges from Puget OTHER CLIMATE-RELATED CITY PLANS & POLICIES • City of Bellingham Comprehensive Plan 2016 Update • Mayoral Proclamation of Energy Year 2016 • Energy and Resource Conservation (ERC) Policy • Resolution Endorsing the Earth Charter (Resolution 2002-44) • Cities for Climate Protection Program (Resolution 2005-08) • Construction and Renovation of Public Buildings Using LEED Standards (Resolution 2005-21) • Renewable Energy Purchase for Municipal Facilities (Resolution 2006-28) • Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (Resolution 2007-05) • Greenhouse Gas Reduction (Resolution 2007-10) • Electric Car Charging Station (Ordinance 2011-03-009) • Single-use carryout Bag Ordinance (6.47.050) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 97 page 30 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Sound Energy, three other natural gas utilities, and eight industry groups. At the 2016 United Nations Marrakesh Climate Conference, Washington State joined the Under 2 MOU, a coalition of 167 subnational jurisdictions in 33 countries that committed to cutting carbon emissions below 80 percent of 1990 levels by 2050 – a reduction deemed necessary to limit global warming to less than two degrees Celsius by 2100. In 2015, Governor Inslee attended the U.N. Paris Climate Conference and committed to doubling the percent of electric vehicles in the state government fleet to 20%. Nationwide, Washington ranks among the top three states for electric vehicle adoption. Washington also participates in other regional climate agreements like the Pacific Coast Collaborative and Pacific North America Climate Leadership Agreement. These efforts build on Washington’s 2008 Climate Action Plan, which calls for reducing statewide greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2035, and 50 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. A State House of Representatives Bill introduced in January 2017 calls for accelerating those goals to reach 80 percent below 1990 levels by 205045. The state’s Renewable Portfolio Standards have reduced carbon pollution from electricity generation and require utilities to use 15 percent renewable resources by 2020. In July 2016, Puget Sound Energy settled a Clean Air Act lawsuit from the Sierra Club by agreeing to shut down the dirtiest units of its coal-fired power plant in Colstrip, Montana by 2022.46 In November 2016, Washington voters rejected the nation’s first state carbon tax initiative.47 After President Trump removed the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement in June 2017, Governor Inslee joined the governors of New York and California to form the United Figure 7. Timeline of City of Bellingham climate policies JAN-05 JAN-06 JAN-07 JAN-08 JAN-09 JAN-10 JAN-11 JAN-12 JAN-13 JAN-14 JAN-15 JAN-16 JAN-17 JAN-18 City council passes Cities for Climate Protection Program. City commits to LEED Building Standards. City starts using 100% green power.City adopts Climate Action Plan. Awarded Green Power Partner of the Year. APA award for multimodal transportation plan. Community Energy Challenge begins. Energy and resource conservation policy. Energy Scarcity/Peak Oil Task Force report. Cities for Climate Protection Program completed. Climate Adaptation Plan drafted. City requests cumulative impact analysis of Gateway Pacific Terminal. City begins retrofitting 3600 streetlights with LED bulbs. Mayor Linville declares energy year. Bellingham named NW Solar Community by Governor Inslee. Mayor signs Mayor’s Climate Protection Initiative. City commits to environmental purchasing program.Awarded EPA Green Power Partner of the Year again. Bellingham named #1 Small city by NRDC Smarter Cities program. Streamlined permits for rooftop solar. EPA Climate Showcase community grant supports CEC. Mayor Pike joins over 100 mayors in a letter to President Obama opposing Keystone XL pipeline. Environment chapter added to comprehensive plan. Mayor Linville joins Amicus brief to US Supreme Court supporting EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Mayor Linville joins Climate Mayors to adopt Paris Agreement Mayor Linville joins Mayors for 100% Clean Energy Community- wide Campaign. City joins the United Nations Compact of Mayors. Georgetown Energy Prize Competition starts. Energy conservation retrofits in city building.Bellingham named a top 10 finalist in the George- town Energy Prize Competition. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 98 page 31 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update State Climate Alliance, a coalition of U.S. states committed to upholding the Paris Agreement and taking aggressive action on climate change. Local Climate Policy Bellingham’s climate leadership began in 2005 when the City committed to the five milestones of the Cities for Climate Protection Program.48 In 2006, the City began purchasing renewable energy credits to offset all municipal electricity use, earning recognition from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 2007 and 2009. In 2007, City Council approved the Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Climate Protection Action Plan, which committed the City to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 64% in 2012 and 70% in 2020, compared with the 2000 baseline levels.49 The City also planned to reduce greenhouse gas pollution in the entire Bellingham community by 7% below 2000 levels by 2012 and by 28% below 2000 levels by 2020. To reach these goals, the City has put in place numerous policies to increase renewable energy, energy efficiency and conservation, alternative transportation, and waste reduction. Major policies are noted in the Bellingham climate policy timeline (Figure 7) and specific measures are highlighted in the Climate Action Plan Update section of this report. Climate action involves numerous sectors of City government including a number of existing policies and plans. Bellingham continues to implement and revise the climate plans begun in 2007. In addition to acting locally to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the City has also joined important state, national and international campaigns to support reduction measures. JAN-05JAN-06JAN-07JAN-08JAN-09JAN-10JAN-11 JAN-12 JAN-13 JAN-14 JAN-15 JAN-16 JAN-17 JAN-18 City council passes Cities for Climate Protection Program. City commits to LEED Building Standards. City starts using 100% green power.City adopts Climate Action Plan. Awarded Green Power Partner of the Year. APA award for multimodal transportation plan. Community Energy Challenge begins. Energy and resource conservation policy. Energy Scarcity/Peak Oil Task Force report. Cities for Climate Protection Program completed. Climate Adaptation Plan drafted. City requests cumulative impact analysis of Gateway Pacific Terminal. City begins retrofitting 3600 streetlights with LED bulbs. Mayor Linville declares energy year. Bellingham named NW Solar Community by Governor Inslee. Mayor signs Mayor’s Climate Protection Initiative. City commits to environmental purchasing program.Awarded EPA Green Power Partner of the Year again. Bellingham named #1 Small city by NRDC Smarter Cities program. Streamlined permits for rooftop solar. EPA Climate Showcase community grant supports CEC. Mayor Pike joins over 100 mayors in a letter to President Obama opposing Keystone XL pipeline. Environment chapter added to comprehensive plan. Mayor Linville joins Amicus brief to US Supreme Court supporting EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Mayor Linville joins Climate Mayors to adopt Paris Agreement Mayor Linville joins Mayors for 100% Clean Energy Community- wide Campaign. City joins the United Nations Compact of Mayors. Georgetown Energy Prize Competition starts. Energy conservation retrofits in city building.Bellingham named a top 10 finalist in the George- town Energy Prize Competition. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 99 page 32 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Greenhouse Gas Emissions Update Emissions Inventories An emissions inventory is a comprehensive estimate of the amount of greenhouse gases emitted from a particular area or jurisdiction. Inventories are the best way to track progress towards emissions targets. The City of Bellingham has completed emissions inventories for the years 2000, 2005, 2012, and 2015 to track progress toward targets set for 2012, 2020, 2030 and 2050. Inventories are completed at two scales: municipal city government operations and the Bellingham community within city limits. Going forward, emissions inventories will be completed every two years by City of Bellingham Natural Resources staff. See Appendix for Inventory Methods. Municipal Emissions Trends Between 2000 and 2012, municipal emissions dropped by 69.5%, including reductions from renewable energy credits purchased by the City to offset electricity emissions (Figure 8). This exceeds the goal set in 2007 to cut emissions by 64% from 2000 levels by 2012, and puts within reach the 2020 goal to cut emissions by 70% below 2000 levels, despite emissions growth in 2015. The increase in non-electricity 30K 25K 20K 15K 10K TONS CO2eYEAR 5K 0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 no action forecast 2020 target: -70% from 2000RECs included RECs not included 2012 target: -64% from 2000 -13.3% -69.5% 2007 No action Forecast Actual emissions (no RECs) 2007 CAP targets Measured Emissions Emissions (RECs included) Projected Emissions Figure 8. Estimated Bellingham municipal emissions (tons CO2e) from 2000 to 2015, with and without emissions reductions from purchased renewable energy credits (RECs) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 100 page 33 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview 30K 25K 20K 15K 10K TONS CO2eYEAR 5K 0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 no action forecast 2020 target: -70% from 2000RECs included RECs not included 2012 target: -64% from 2000 -13.3% -69.5% 2007 No action Forecast Actual emissions (no RECs) 2007 CAP targetsMeasured Emissions Emissions (RECs included) Projected Emissions emissions in 2015 (blue line in Figure 8) and the corresponding decrease in overall emissions (orange line) reflects the City’s focus on reducing electricity use; however, natural gas and fleet emissions must be cut in order to meet the City’s 2020 goal. 2012 emissions were 4% below 1990 levels, missing the Kyoto Protocol of 7% below 1990 levels when emissions from new buildings are included. Note that these emissions do not include solid waste, which were not factored into baseline emissions or targets. Also note that these are comparisons of discrete snapshots in time; multi-year trends will better reflect emissions reductions. Municipal Emissions Analysis by Sector Note: Renewable energy credit emissions offsets not included in this analysis. Sewer utility emissions dropped an estimated 8% between 2000 and 2012 due to improved incinerator use, improved secondary treatment energy efficiency, and a new centrifuge (Figure 10; see measures for details). However, in 2015, the City sewer utility emitted 40% of municipal emissions -- by far the most of any sector (Figure 9). Buildings and Facilities accounted for 28% of 2015 municipal emissions with a 3% reduction from the 2000 baseline despite more city-owned buildings. This decrease is likely due to energy efficient retrofits and green building practices. The increase in Building and Facility emissions from 2012 may be due to air conditioning during the hot summer in 2015; there were 152 more cooling degree-days in 2015 compared to 2012. Streetlights and traffic signals emitted just 3% of city emissions in 2015 – down from 12% in 2012 – thanks to LED lightbulb upgrades that save 2,204,210 kWh of electricity and 1,000 tons of CO2e every year. The City’s vehicle fleet, which made up 10% of 2015 emissions, saw a 29% emissions reduction due to a decrease in diesel fuel use and improved average fleet fuel efficiency, aided by the City’s no idling policy and purchases of hybrid and electric vehicles. Emissions from Buildings and Facilities (28%) Vehicle Fleet (10%)Water Utility (10%) Sewer Utility (40%) Solid Waste (1%) Street Lights andTraffic Signals (10%) EmployeeCommute (8%) Figure 9. Estimated Bellingham municipal emissions (tons CO2e) by sector in 2015, including emissions from electricity use (renewable energy credit emissions offsets are omitted) Municipal sectors Community sectors Buildings & Facilities Residential Vehicle Fleet Commercial Employee Commute Industrial Streetlights Transportation Water & Sewer Solid Waste Solid Waste 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 101 page 34 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview water treatment and delivery were 10% of all City emissions in 2015 after decreasing 5 percent from 2000 with improved water conservation. City employee commute emissions – 8% of 2015 emissions – fell 12 percent as City jobs were cut and commuting behavior changed under the City’s commute trip reduction program. Solid waste emissions were an estimated 1% of 2012 emissions; however, as noted above, this is a very rough estimate with no baseline data for comparison. Community Emissions Trends Between 2000 and 2012, community emissions dropped by 17%, exceeding the goal of a 7% reduction and preventing 419,284 tons of CO2e emissions when compared to the No Action forecast (Figure 12). In 2015, however, emissions increased to just 4% below 2000 levels. Some year-to-year variation is expected due to weather. 2012 emissions were 10% higher than 1990 levels, missing the Kyoto Protocol goal of 7% below 1990 levels. Note that these emissions do not include solid waste, which were not factored into baseline emissions or emissions reductions targets, but will be going forward. Figure 10. 2000-2015 municipal CO2e emissions by sector excluding solid waste TONS CO2eMUNICIPAL SECTOR BY YEAR (elec./nat. gas) (elec./nat. gas) (elec./nat. gas) (gas/diesel) (gas/diesel) (elec.) 2000 2005 2012 2015 new buildings 0 2K 4K 6K 8K 10K Employee CommuteWaterStreetlightsVehicle FleetBuildingsWastewater +3% change since 2000 -3% -29% -75% -5%-12% Figure 11. Normalized CO2e emissions from municipal sectors in 2000 and 2015 TONS CO2e0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2000 Wateremissionsper capita Seweremissionsper capita Fleet emissionsper vehicle Building emissions per FTE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2015 -15% -35% -18%-24% 2012 goal 1600K 1400K 1200K 1000K 800K 600K 400K 200K 0 TONS CO2eYEAR 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2007 CAPgoal2007 No action forecast Emissions Emissions (RECs included)Emissions (RECs included) 2007 No actionforecast -7% from 2000 levels -28% from 2000 2020 goal Measured Emissions Projected Emissions 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 102 page 35 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Community Emissions Analysis by Sector Transportation accounted for an estimated 32% of Bellingham community greenhouse gas emissions in 2015 (Figure 13). A significant portion of transportation emissions come from Interstate 5 traffic passing through Bellingham, which is outside the influence of City climate policies. Bellingham community transportation emissions are difficult to estimate over this time period because transportation models changed from a state-level model to a more accurate local model. For consistency, the local model was backcast to 2005 and 2000, though this represents 2012 goal 1600K 1400K 1200K 1000K 800K 600K 400K 200K 0 TONS CO2eYEAR 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2007 CAPgoal2007 No action forecast Emissions Emissions (RECs included)Emissions (RECs included) 2007 No actionforecast -7% from 2000 levels -28% from 2000 2020 goal Measured Emissions Projected Emissions Transportation (32%) Industrial energy (23%) Solid waste (2%) Commercialenergy (23%) Residential energy (20%) Figure 13. 2015 Bellingham community CO2e missions by sector Figure 12. Estimated Bellingham community emissions (tons CO2e) from 2000 to 2015 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 103 page 36 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview a gross estimate of past emissions. It is similarly difficult to attribute the emissions reductions to specific measures, but City and community efforts to promote alternative transportation and improve access to electric vehicles likely helped (see Climate Action Plan measures for details). Residential and Commercial energy made up 43% of community emissions in 2015. Residential natural gas use saw the largest reduction (33%) between 2000 and 2015 thanks to a variety of community campaigns and programs like the Community Energy Challenge that provide rebates and incentives for energy efficient investments in homes and businesses. Western Washington University and the Bellingham School District have also implemented ambitious energy efficiency campaigns reflected in these emissions reductions. The increase in Residential and Commercial electricity emissions from 2012 to 2015 may be due to air conditioning during the hot summer in 2015; there were 152 more cooling degree-days in 2015 compared to 2012. Industrial energy comprised 15% of community emissions in 2015; industrial electricity fell 26% over 15 years. Note that utility accounting of industrial energy use changed over this period and so accurate comparison is difficult. TONS CO2eCOMMUNITY SECTOR BY YEAR AND SOURCE 2000 *Changing utility accounting methods of industrial natural gas use confound consistent emissions tracking over time. For this reason, 2007 data was backcast to 2000 to better estimate non-CNG industrial users, raising baseline estimates. **Other=commercial, industrial, multifamily. These emissions were backcast from 2012 due to lack of data 2005 2012 2015 0 50K 100K 150K 200K 250K 300K Other**ResidentialNatural GasElectricityNatural GasElectricityNatural GasElectricityDieselGas transportation industrial energy residential energycommercial energy solid waste -14% since 2000 +5% +12% -29%-26% 20%* 3% -33% -10%+20% Figure 14. Estimated Bellingham community emissions (tons CO2e) by sector in 2000, 2005, 2012, and 2015. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 104 page 37 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update OverviewPER CAPITA CO2e EMISSIONSCOMMUNITY SOURCE BY SECTOR 2000 Emissions 2015 Emissions *Changing utility accounting methods of industrial natural gas use confound consistent emissions tracking over time. For this reason, 2007 data was backcast to 2000 to better estimate non-CNG industrial users, raising baseline estimates. **Other=commercial, industrial, multifamily. These emissions were backcast from 2012 due to lack of data 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Other**ResidentialNatural GasElectricityNatural Gas*ElectricityNatural GasElectricityDieselGas transportation industrial energy residential energycommercial energy solid waste Figure 15. Per capita CO2e emissions from community sectors in 2000 and 2015 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 105 page 38 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Overview Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Goals Table 3. Bellingham community emissions goals, forecasts, and inventories (2000 - 2030) (tons CO2e) 1 RECs are assumed to offset all electricity emissions, which are excluded from these totals. Solid waste emissions are omitted due to lack of data. 2000 backcast 2005 2012 % Change ('00-'12) 2015 Change ('00-'15) % Change ('00-'15) 2020 % Change ('00-'20) 2030 % Change ('00-'30) 2050 % Change ('00-'50) 2007 CPAP goals1 - 1,019,680 892,397 -7%--- 688,554 -28%---- 2018 CPAP update goals1 --------- 573,795 -40%191,265 -85% Emissions (RECs included)1 956,325 - 764,506 -20.1% 866,572 89,753 -9.4%TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD 2000 backcast 2005 2012 % Change ('00-'12)Change ('00-'12)2015 Change ('00-'15)% Change ('00-'15)2020 % Change ('00-'20)2030 % Change ('00-'30)2050 % Change ('00-'50) 2007 CPAP goals (with RECs)1 -- 7,505 -64%---- 6,254 -70%1,175 -85%--100% 2018 update goals (no RECs)2 -- ------ 15,848 -25% 12,678 -40%--65% COB emissions (with RECs)1 -- 6,349 -69.5% 6,709 6,709 -14,421 -68.3%TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD COB emissions (no RECs)2 21,130 21,695 18,728 -11.4% 18,267 18,267 -2,863 -13.5%TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD Table 2. City of Bellingham municipal emissions goals, forecasts, and inventories (2000 - 2030) (tons CO2e) 1 RECs are assumed to offset all electricity emissions, which are excluded from these totals. Solid waste emissions are omitted due to lack of data. 2 Electricity emissions are included in these totals. Solid waste emissions omitted due to lack of data. The City of Bellingham achieved the 2007 Climate Action Plan goal of 64% municipal emissions reduction from 2000 levels by 2012. However, this target did not include emissions from City government electricity use because the City’s purchase of renewable energy credits (RECs) accounted for 100% of these emissions by helping to fund renewable energy projects, and so they were not counted. Going forward, the City will set targets to cut actual emissions as well. This will push the City to further reduce electricity use and to find cleaner energy sources, ideally close to home (see the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency and Conservation sections below). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 106 page 39 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Table 2. City of Bellingham municipal emissions goals, forecasts, and inventories (2000 - 2030) (tons CO2e) 1 RECs are assumed to offset all electricity emissions, which are excluded from these totals. Solid waste emissions are omitted due to lack of data. 2 Electricity emissions are included in these totals. Solid waste emissions omitted due to lack of data. 2018 CLIMATE ACTION PLAN UPDATE 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 107 page 40 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update 2018 Climate Action Plan Update Core Climate Action Strategies COMM U N I T Y MUNIC I P A LLand Use Transportation Renewable Energy Green Building Waste Reduction Energy Efficiency and Conservation 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 108 page 41 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Emissions Forecast & Reduction Measures Forecasting emissions allows for more effective climate action planning to meet future goals. In the 2007 plan, an emissions forecast to 2020 was used to develop the 2020 emissions targets. For this plan update, updated forecasts for municipal and community emissions were calculated to 2030 based on the most recent emissions inventory from 2015 (Figure 16). This forecast includes estimated emissions reductions from ongoing and proposed measures (Table 4). Emissions reductions calculations and forecasting were done using ICLEI ClearPath software. More information on forecast methodology and assumptions is in Appendix A. Figure 16. City of Bellingham municipal emissions forecast by sector including proposed emissions reductions measures (see Table 4) (2015-2030). The black line represents a no action forecast. 20K 15K 10K 5K 2015 2020 2025 20300 METRIC TONS CO2eEmployeeCommute Solid WasteFacilities Vehicle Fleet Building and FacilitiesBuilding and Facilities Street Lights and Traffic SignalsStreet Lights and Traffic Signals Water and Wastewater Treatment FacilitiesWater and Wastewater Treatment Facilities OriginalForecast 2020 Emissions Target 2030 Emissions Target Municipal Emissions Forecast 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 109 page 42 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update 2018 Climate Action Plan Update New and Ongoing Emissions Reduction Measures Rating Phases Status Start Year CO2e change ‘15-’30 (tons) % of 2020 target Lead Energy Efficiency and ConservationResource Conservation Management 2 ongoing 2007 -1238 52%COB Public Works, Facilities Post Point Best Management Practices 2 ongoing 2007 -157 7%COB Public Works, Post Point Operations and Employee Actions 2 ongoing 2007 -19 1%COB Public Works, Facilities Parks LED upgrades 4 proposed 2019 -595 25%COB Parks Residential Water Metering 3 complete 2015 -54 2%COB Public Works Renewable EnergyCity Solar 3 ongoing 2005 -332 14%COB Public Works Post Point Resource Recovery 4 proposed 2025 -1558 NA COB Public Works, Post Point TransportationLimit Idling 2 ongoing 2007 -117 5%COB Public Works, Fleet Increase Biofuel Use 2 ongoing 2007 -117 5%COB Public Works, Fleet Free Employee Bus Passes 2 ongoing 2007 -18 1%COB Public Works, Fleet Invest in Hybrid & Electric Vehicles 3 ongoing 2007 -40 2%COB Public Works, Fleet Fleet Vehicle Telematics 4 proposed 2018 -88 4%COB Public Works, Fleet Commute Trip Reduction 2 ongoing 2008 -142 6%COB Public Works Invest in Hybrid & Electric Vehicles 2 ongoing 2022, 2028 -328 NA COB Public Works, Fleet TOTAL:-4802 123% NA = not applicable to 2020 goal Table 4. Ongoing and proposed municipal emissions reduction measures included in emissions forecast. *There are additional measures not included in the emissions forecast due to lack of emissions reduction data. All measures are reported in the next section. Ongoing and Proposed Municipal Measures Included in Forecast* 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 110 page 43 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Figure 17. Bellingham community emissions forecast by sector including proposed emissions reductions actions (see Table 5) (2015-2030) 250K 500K 750K 1000K 2015 2020 2025 2030 Commercial Energy Industrial Energy Solid Waste Transportationand Mobile SourcesTransportationand Mobile Sources Residential EnergyResidential Energy OriginalForecast 2020 Emissions Target (28% below 2000) Target 2030 Emissions Target(40% below 2000) Target Community Emissions Forecast 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 111 page 44 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update 2018 Climate Action Plan Update Community Reduction Measure Rating Phase Status Start year CO2e change ‘15-’30 (tons)% of 2020 target Lead Energy Efficiency and ConservationCOB municipal measures Various Various Various -4,821 2.12%Various (see Table 4; all strategies) Puget Sound Energy Programs 2 Ongoing Various -233 0.10%Puget Sound Energy Cascade Natural Gas Programs 2 Ongoing Various -149 0.07%Cascade Natural Gas WWU Sustainability Program 1 Ongoing 2008 -1,342 0.59%WWU Office of Sustainability Community Energy Challenge 2 Ongoing 2009 -4,116 1.81%Community Energy Challenge COB Water Conservation Program 3 Ongoing 2016 -15 0.01%City Public Works Dept. Single- & Multi-family Residential Outreach 3 Ongoing 2016 -7,263 3.19%PSE, Sustainable Connections, WWU Residential Water Metering 3 Ongoing 2016 -471 0.21%City Public Works Dept. Project RENT 3 Ongoing 2016 -9 0.00%WWU Office of Sustainability Bellingham Energy Prize Energy Center 3 Discontin-ued 2016 -81 0.04%Sustainable Connections COB Climate Education 1 Ongoing 2017 -2,879 1.26%City Public Works Dept. PSE Sweeps Campaign 3 Ongoing 2017 -3,609 1.58%Puget Sound Energy Bellingham Cold Storage Energy Efficiency 2 Ongoing 2017 -80 0.04%Bellingham Cold Storage Building Performance Center grant 3 Ongoing 2017 -1,477 0.65%Building Perfor-mance Center Toward Net Zero (elec + nat. gas) 3 Ongoing 2018 -17 0.01%Sustainable Connections Industrial Energy Efficiency 4 Proposed 2018 -12,711 5.58%Community and City Green Leases for City Tenants 4 Proposed 2018 -312 0.14%City Public Works Dept. Weatherization Requirement 4 Proposed 2018 -8,389 3.68%City Planning and Development Dept. PSE LED Streetlights 3 Proposed 2019 -413 0.18%Puget Sound Energy Waterfront District Energy 4 Proposed 2020 -3,045 1.34%Port of Bellingham Residential Energy Ratings 4 Proposed 2025 -28,207 NA City Planning and Development Dept. Commercial & Multifamily Benchmarking 4 Proposed 2025 -1,102 NA City Public Works Dept. Table 5. Ongoing and proposed community emissions reduction measures included in community emissions forecast (continued on next two pages) *There are additional measures not included in the emissions forecast due to lack of emissions reduction data. All measures are reported in the next section. Ongoing and Proposed Community Measures Included in Forecast* 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 112 page 45 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Reduction Measure Rating Phase Status Start year CO2e change ‘15-’30 (tons)% of 2020 target Lead Green Power (COB, WWU, Whatcom Cty, PSE) 1 Ongoing Various -57,465 25.23%PSE and organi-zations Renewable EnergySolar Permitting Improvements 3 Ongoing 2009 -2,578 1.13%City Planning and Development Dept. Solarize Whatcom 3 Ongoing 2016 -171 0.08%Sustainable Con-nections Washington Goes Solar 3 Ongoing 2017 -141 0.06%RESources Solar Incentives - Accelerated 4 Proposed 2018 -360 0.16%City Planning and Development Dept. Promote Hybrid & Electric Cars 2 Ongoing 2007 -20,844 9.15%City Planning and Development Dept.TransportationPromote Biofuels 2 Ongoing 2007 -599 0.26%City Planning and Development Dept. Vehicle Mode Shift Goal (gas + diesel)2 Ongoing 2015 -13,073 5.74%City Planning and Development Dept. WTA Bus and Facility Upgrades 3 Ongoing 2017 -130 0.06%Whatcom Transit Authority SSC CNG Truck Conversion 3 Ongoing 2018 -2,237 0.98%Sanitary Service Company Promote Hybrids - Accelerated 4 Proposed 2019 -11,941 5.24%Community and City Exceed Vehicle Mode Shift Goal by 10%4 Proposed 2025 -8,849 3.88%City Planning and Development Dept.Green BuildingPromote Green Building 1 Ongoing 2007 -2,906 1.28%City Planning and Development Dept.Waste ReductionConstruction and Demolition Recycling 1 Ongoing 2018 -4,122 1.81%City Planning and Development Dept. TOTAL:-206,156 78% 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 113 page 46 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update 2018 Climate Action Plan Update Energy Efficiency and Conservation Municipal measures Phase Status Resource Conservation Management 2 Ongoing Post Point Best Management Practices 2 Ongoing Federal Building Retrofits 2 Ongoing LED Streetlight Upgrades 3 Complete Operations and Employee Actions 4 Proposed Parks LED Upgrades 4 Proposed Renewable Energy Municipal measures Phase Status 100% Green Power I Ongoing City Solar 3 Proposed Post Point Resource Recovery 3 Proposed Wastewater Heat Recovery 4 Proposed All Municipal Emissions Reduction Measures (Past, Present, & Future) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 114 page 47 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Transportation Municipal measures Phase Status Biodiesel Pilot Project 1 Discontinued Commute Trip Reduction Program 1 Incomplete Increase Biodiesel / Renewable Diesel Use 2 Incomplete Invest in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles 2 Ongoing 10% Ethanol in City Fleet 2 Complete Limit Idling 2 Proposed 35% Reduction in Employee Commute VMT 3 Incomplete Free Employee Bus Passes 3 Ongoing City Bike Fleet 3 Ongoing Green Fleet Work Plan 4 Proposed Western Washington Clean Cities 4 Proposed Become Evergreen Fleets Certified 4 Proposed Efficient Driver Training 4 Proposed Advanced Vehicle Locator Systems 4 Proposed Diesel Exhaust Retrofits 4 Proposed 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 115 page 48 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update 2018 Climate Action Plan Update Waste Reduction Municipal measures Phase Status City Hall Recycling I Complete Green Purchasing I Ongoing All City Facility Recycling 2 Ongoing Green Event Kits 3 Ongoing Municipal Waste Monitoring 4 Proposed Waste Reduction Plan 4 Proposed Good-on-One-Side Notepads 3 Ongoing Specialty Recycling 3 Ongoing Green Building Municipal measures Phase Status LEED Buildings I Ongoing Recycled Construction Materials 3 Ongoing 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 116 page 49 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Energy Efficiency and Conservation Community measure Phase Status Climate Outreach and Education 1 Incomplete WWU Sustainability Program 1 Ongoing County Courthouse Efficiency 1 Complete Community Energy Challenge 2 Ongoing Puget Sound Energy Programs 2 Ongoing Cascade Natural Gas Programs 2 Ongoing BCS Energy Efficiency 2 Ongoing Toward Net Zero Energy 3 Ongoing COB Water Use Efficiency 3 Ongoing Residential Water Metering 3 Complete Housing Rehab and Construction 3 Ongoing Housing Authority Retrofits 3 Complete Bellingham Energy Prize 3 Ongoing Energy Prize Online Energy Center 3 Ongoing Energy Efficiency and Real Estate 3 Ongoing Project RENT 3 Complete Multi-family Residential Efficiency 3 Ongoing Bellingham Schools Energy Efficiency 3 Ongoing Green Classroom Certification 3 Ongoing Waterfront District Energy 4 Proposed Energy Innovation Hub 4 Proposed Single-family Residential Outreach 4 Proposed PSE Streetlights LED Upgrade 4 Proposed Commercial & Multi-family Building Benchmarking 4 Proposed Industrial Energy Efficiency 4 Proposed Green Leases for City Tenants 4 Proposed Residential Energy Ratings 4 Proposed Weatherization Requirement 4 Proposed All Community Emissions Reduction Measures (Past, Present, & Future) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 117 page 50 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update 2018 Climate Action Plan Update Renewable Energy Community measure Phase Status Green Power Purchases I Ongoing Green Power Community Challenge I Complete WWU Sustainability Program I Ongoing County Green Power I Ongoing Solar Permitting Improvements 3 Complete Solarize Whatcom 3 Ongoing Washington Goes Solar Campaign 3 Ongoing Waterfront District Energy 4 Proposed Community Solar 4 Proposed More Efficient Energy Distribution 4 Proposed Support Wind Power 4 Proposed Transportation Community measure Phase Status SSC Biodiesel 1 Ongoing Car Sharing 1 Ongoing Vehicle Mode Shift 2 Ongoing Safe Routes to School 2 Ongoing Limit Idling 2 Incomplete Promote Biofuels 2 Incomplete Promote Hybrid and Electric Vehicles 2 Ongoing Whatcom Smart Trips 3 Ongoing SSC Natural Gas Trucks 3 In Progress Commute Trip Reduction 3 Ongoing WTA Bus and Facility Upgrades 3 In Progress 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 118 page 51 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Waste Reduction Community measure Phase Status Construction/Demolition Recycling I Ongoing Food Plus!I Ongoing Increase Curbside Recycling I Incomplete Plastic Bag Ban 3 Complete Green Building Community measure Phase Status Promote Green Building I Ongoing Advanced Materials and Methods Policies 3 Ongoing 2030 Districts 4 Proposed Land Use Community measure Phase Status COB Habitat Protection and Restoration 1 Ongoing Urban Villages 3 Ongoing High Density Development 3 Ongoing COB Carbon Fund 4 Proposed 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 119 page 52 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Municipal Measures Energy Efficiency and Conservation Buildings & Facilities—Phase 2 RESOURCE CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT In 2009, the City of Bellingham adopted a policy to establish baseline energy use and cost information. The next step was to kick off the Municipal Facilities Energy Conservation Project with a municipal facilities upgrade.50 After an energy audit and initial energy use reduction projects, the City began a larger effort to retrofit systems in most city buildings and facilities using a federally backed financing program. In March 2011, the City acquired $6.5 million in Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds to fund 47 energy improvement projects in 22 buildings and facilities.51 After installation, the contractor verified over $200,000 in annual energy savings, exceeding expectations by 28%. Nearly half of these savings came from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and direct digital controls (DDC) upgrades at the Arne Hanna Aquatic Center.52 In addition, the City received an incentive payment of $109,312 from Cascade Natural Gas for the Aquatic Center retrofits.53 The package of upgrades is expected to reduce CO2 emissions by nearly 1000 metric tons annually, representing a 15% reduction from the baseline. In April 2016, the City hired Sustainable Connections to host a new Resource Conservation Manager (RCM) to inspect buildings and provide additional recommendations for retrofits and conservation actions in 41 City-owned buildings. A number of low and no-cost projects were completed, including replacement of more than 500 incandescent light 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 120 page 53 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Municipal Measures bulbs with LEDs at the Lightcatcher museum, saving substantial energy and improving lighting quality. Status: Ongoing Goal: Implement recommended RCM measures and ensure existing RCM measures are being properly implemented and monitored. Emissions Reduction: 1,238 tons CO2e per year. Next Steps: Fund and implement additional RCM recommendations. In 2017 mid-biennium budget adjustments, funding was included for a building engineer position to implement energy conservation measures. POST POINT BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES City staff at Post Point Wastewater Treatment Plant have adopted a number of best management practices to reduce energy use. These include adjusting incinerator temperatures based on quantity of sludge, and adjusting the space-heating thermostat dependent upon need. City staff have estimated that between 2000 and 2010, these actions allowed the plant’s natural gas usage to remain relatively constant despite approximately 1% growth per year in amount of sludge burned. This resulted in a savings of about 13,940 therms or 82 tons of CO2. Worthy of note, but not included in the emissions inventory, is the significant savings yielded in the early years of the plant’s operation. Between 1994 and 1996, the incinerator’s gas use declined by 255,000 therms per year. In 2006-2007, Puget Sound Energy funded a $300,000 power reduction project that reduced energy cost of secondary treatment by 25-30%. In 2011, a new centrifuge was installed, resulting in savings of approximately 300,000 kWh annually. The City also Puget Sound Energy presents an energy efficiency grant of over $500,000 to Bellingham City Council (Photo: courtesy of PSE) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 121 page 54 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation replaced energy-related equipment for an expected reduction in the plant’s energy consumption by approximately 1.83 million kWh per year and a savings of more than $115,000 in energy costs annually. In recognition of these efforts, the City received $548,937 from Puget Sound Energy. In 2017, Post Point staff completed an energy saving upgrade for the oxygen control of the treatment system with energy savings around $30,000 and 323,000 kWh per year, and a cost around $250,000. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 157 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: A multi-year planning process for biosolids treatment and resource recovery is underway. Switching from incinerators to a less energy-intensive process such as anaerobic digestion and biogas capture would reduce emissions significantly (see Post Point Resource Recovery measure in the Renewable Energy section). FEDERAL BUILDING RETROFITS The City of Bellingham Federal Building, a structure built in 1913 that is on the National Register of Historic Places, received mechanical, electrical, and plumbing infrastructure upgrades in 2015 to conform to the State’s new energy code. Renovations were completed on the first floor (about 1/4 of the total square footage), including replacement of inefficient air distribution systems, conversion of the heating system from steam to hot water, new insulated plumbing and water-saving fixtures, and upgrading LED Streetlight Upgrades In early 2016, the City finished replacing 3,615 conventional street- lights with LED lighting and adaptive controls allowing lights to be dimmed for certain periods of time for additional energy savings. The total cost of this project was approximately $4 million and it will save approximately $240,000 dollars annually. This investment will save 2,204,210 kWh of electricity and more than 1.8 million pounds of CO2 every year. City has qualified for at least $434,000 in Puget Sound Energy rebates for the estimated energy savings. The City pays for an additional 1,700 streetlights owned and operated by Puget Sound Energy, which have not been upgraded. In 2005, red and green stoplights were upgraded to LEDs. Status: Complete Before (above) and after (below) LED streetlight installation 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 122 page 55 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation of lighting control systems and replacement of lightbulbs with LEDs. Several energy-efficiency measures were implemented in the Federal Building prior to city ownership. These upgrades contributed to the award of the Energy Star label for buildings. Measures include a lighting retrofit and installation of an Energy Management System (EMS). In addition, load-reduction strategies were implemented to reduce the amount of heating, cooling and electricity used. These energy-efficiency initiatives cost approximately $230,000, providing an annual energy cost savings of $45,000, resulting in a payback time of approximately five years. Status: Ongoing Goal: Implement recommended RCM measures and ensure they are properly monitored. Emissions Reduction: Included in Resource Conservation and Management measure above Next Steps: The Federal Building is included in the City’s most recent Resource Conservation and Management analysis. Recommended upgrades include additional HVAC upgrades, LED lights, reduced flow faucets, energy management system programming, lighting occupancy sensors, and storm windows. OPERATIONS AND EMPLOYEE ACTIONS In order to maximize the energy savings from facilities improvements, the City will conduct a focus group to help develop best practices for energy efficient behavior in the workplace and at home. These materials can then be adapted and distributed to other large employers. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 19 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Establish employee contacts in each department to communicate energy saving information and materials. Buildings & Facilities - Phase 4 Measures PARKS LED UPGRADES The City Parks Department will continue replacing indoor and outdoor lights at Parks facilities. Maritime Heritage Park lights and others have already been replaced. Status: Proposed Goal: Replace all appropriate lights with LEDs by 2019. Emissions Reduction: 595 tons CO2e per year RESIDENTIAL WATER METERING The City completed a residential water- metering program to install about 15,000 water meters in 2017 . Metering has been shown to reduce consumer use by tying water use to cost, with corresponding reductions in the energy needed to treat and distribute water. Status: Complete Emissions Reduction: 54 tons CO2 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 123 page 56 Municipal Measures | Renewable Energy page 56 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Renewable Energy Buildings - Phase 1 Measures 100% GREEN POWER In July 2006, the Bellingham City Council voted unanimously to begin buying renewable energy credits (RECs) through Puget Sound Energy’s Green Power Program to offset 100 percent of the electricity used by the city government -- almost 20,700,000 kilowatt hours in 2007. As a result, the city won the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Green Power Leadership Award for 2007 and 2008, and was named the #1 Green Power Community in the country. Bellingham was also named an EPA Climate Showcase Community. In recognition of these accomplishments, Puget Sound Energy (PSE) donated a 2-kilowatt solar project on the roof of the Environmental Learning Center (ELC) at Maritime Heritage Park, which was installed in July 2007. A second PSE- funded 2.4-kilowatt solar project was dedicated in 2009 on the south-facing parking shed at Depot Market Square in downtown Bellingham. In 2015, the City purchased renewable energy credits (RECs) for 22,000,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) through Puget Sound Energy to support the Wild Horse wind power project in Washington’s Kittitas County. From 2016 to 2018, the City will purchase RECs from 3 Degrees. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reductions: 11,054 tons CO2e per year (not in forecast) Next Steps: In 2019, the City will begin participating in Puget Sound Energy’s Green Direct Program, a long-term agreement that allows the City to add more renewable power to the electrical grid by more directly funding (via PSE) construction of new wind turbines in Eastern Washington. Buildings - Phase 3 Measures CITY SOLAR Currently, there are three solar panel arrays on City property totaling more than 4.4 kilowatts of capacity, two of which were awarded to the City from Puget Sound Energy. Installing more solar would allow the City to save money by producing energy and feeding surplus solar power onto the electric grid, while also avoiding the cost of renewable energy credits per the City’s commitment to purchase 100% green power. Status: Ongoing 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 124 page 57 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Emissions Reductions: 332 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: City staff are evaluating the potential for a solar installation on a City-owned building with the help of a Northwest Clean Air Agency grant. POST POINT WASTEWATER RESOURCE RECOVERY In the past, the City assessed the feasibility of implementing sludge pyrolysis, a method of wastewater treatment that collects methane from sewage sludge and uses it as a fuel source. However, this method was not selected as the preferred treatment technique due to numerous factors. Currently, the City is conducting a multi-year planning project to evaluate ways to manage biosolids in an environmentally, fiscally, technically, and socially sustainable manner. This project uses Triple Bottom Line Plus accounting to develop biosolids into a sustainable resource, limiting environmental impacts while maximizing resource recovery opportunities. The next steps in this multi-phased project will provide a high-level evaluation of emerging technologies including anaerobic digestion with natural gas recovery. A 2012 analysis identified that anaerobic digestion coupled with sludge drying provided the most viable option to meet the City’s strategic commitments and legacy goals. The next study will further evaluate potential biosolids processing technologies that may be suitable for the City’s application. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reductions: 1,558 tons CO2e per year (This is a conservative estimate based on natural gas use reductions but does not include additional emissions reductions from not incinerating biosolids, or from the carbon sequestration of biosolids land application). Next Steps: City staff are working with consultants to determine the best resource recovery method. Buildings - Phase 4 Measures WASTEWATER HEAT RECOVERY Municipal wastewater contains heat energy that can be absorbed using a hygienic and odorless process, and then reused to heat residential and commercial buildings instead of using electricity or natural gas. Vancouver, British Columbia has implemented this type of system. The City will continue to monitor the feasibility to recover heat from sewer lines. Emissions Reductions: Unknown 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 125 page 58 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Transportation Transportation Vehicle Fleet - Phase 1 Measures BIODIESEL PILOT PROJECT Switching from fossil fuels to agriculturally based fuels can reduce carbon pollution because biofuel emissions are part of the natural carbon cycle. Recent concerns about indirect environmental impacts of biofuels on the degradation of wild ecosystems and associated carbon emissions, biodiversity, food prices, water consumption, and poor communities have dimmed enthusiasm for the carbon reduction benefits of biofuels. Fortunately, Whole Energy Fuels produces biodiesel locally from used cooking oil, avoiding these impacts. According to the City of Bellevue, which recently switched to B20 (a blend of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel), used cooking oil reduces lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions by 16.5% as compared to petroleum diesel.54 In 2005, four Public Works vehicles ran on B20 biodiesel as a pilot program. Unfortunately, the fuel injector in one vehicle clogged and the problem was not covered under the manufacturer’s warranty because of the use of B20. Because of this, the program was canceled. Today, many vehicle manufacturer warranties now cover biodiesel up to B20. However, a next generation fuel known as renewable diesel is now being considered for City fleet use (see below). Status: Discontinued Vehicle Fleet - Phase 2 Measures INCREASE USE OF BIODIESEL / RENEWABLE DIESEL Biodiesel (B5) use in the City fleet has fallen over the last six years (Figure 18). Meanwhile, a next-generation biofuel called renewable diesel is drop-in ready in all diesel engines. The City’s Figure 18. Total diesel and biodiesel use by city government from 2007 to 2015GALLONS OF FUEL0 10K 20K 30K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 201520142013201220112010200920082007 YEAR B5 Biodiesel Diesel 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 126 page 59 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | TransportationGALLONS OF FUEL0 10K 20K 30K 40K 50K 60K 70K 80K 201520142013201220112010200920082007 YEAR B5 BiodieselDiesel source of renewable diesel is made from recycled oils but unlike biodiesel it is chemically identical to petroleum diesel and meets industry standard specifications (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D975). Biodiesel still has lower lifecycle emissions, so Fleet could start with an R95/B5 mix and increase the biodiesel portion over time. Status: Incomplete Goal: 100% renewable diesel in City pumps by 2018. Emissions Reduction: 117 tons CO2e per year INVEST IN HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES Due to the region’s relatively low- carbon electricity, electric vehicles are a particularly effective way to cut emissions. As of December 2016, there are 16 hybrid vehicles in the municipal fleet, up from six in 2005. This makes up 15% of existing fleet vehicles in classes that could be replaced with hybrids or EVs. As of 2015, these vehicles had been driven 546,040 miles, preventing about 77 metric tons of CO2 emissions, equivalent to the annual emissions of about 16 passenger cars. The City has two fully electric vehicles (EVs) – 10% of existing fleet vehicles that could be replaced with EVs (not including police cruisers). Status: Ongoing Goal: Phase in electric and hybrid vehicles to replace all City vehicles in suitable classes by 2030 (approximately 8 vehicles, not including police cruisers). (EVs 15% and hybrids 25% passenger vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by 2018; EVs 30% passenger VMT and hybrids 50% SUV VMT by 2022; EVs 45% and hybrids 50% passenger VMT by 2028). At least 10 percent of new vehicle purchases should be electric vehicles, consistent with state policy. Emissions Reduction: 40 tons CO2e by 2018, 288 tons by 2022, 41 tons by 2028 Next Steps: Restructure City fleet purchasing processes to prioritize electric and hybrid vehicles. Develop a Green Vehicle Purchasing Standard for each vehicle class. Determine fleet average fuel efficiency and set a goal to increase average miles per gallon. 10% ETHANOL IN CITY FLEET In 2014, the City’s gasoline vehicles used 118,741 gallons of 10% ethanol gasoline and 327 gallons of regular unleaded -- a 99.7% adoption of 10% ethanol gasoline, reflecting a nationwide shift in fuel types. This prevented about 116 tons CO2 tailpipe emissions compared to regular gasoline; importantly, however, this reduction does not include indirect emissions from corn ethanol production and refining, which have been found to actually exceed emissions from burning regular gasoline.55 56 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 127 page 60 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Transportation Status: Complete Next Steps: Reinforce E85 use in Flex Fuel vehicles through employee education and reminders. LIMIT IDLING Limiting car and truck idling promotes clean air, healthier work environments, efficient use of City resources, conservation of natural resources, and good stewardship practices. The City’s anti-idling policy states that no operator shall unnecessarily idle the engine of an unleaded or diesel fueled car or truck that is stopped for a foreseeable period in excess of 5 minutes except under rare conditions. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 117 tons CO2e Next Steps: Remind drivers not to idle through outreach campaign. Start employee efficient driver training. Purchase cars with idle management systems or install them in cars that need electricity when not driving (like police cars). Vehicle Fleet – Phase 3 Measures CITY BIKE FLEET Eight fully accessorized bikes are available to staff for official business and personal errands. Status: Ongoing Next Steps: Remind employees to use City bikes via email. Emissions Reduction: Unknown Vehicle Fleet - Phase 4 Measures Consider development of a Green Fleet Work Plan outlining the following measures: WESTERN WASHINGTON CLEAN CITIES COALITION This is a not-for-profit membership organization dedicated to expanding the As part of our commitment to reduce vehicle emissions, in 2017 Public Works purchased a mail delivery bike for official use between the multiple City buildings, eliminating daily short trips. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 128 page 61 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Transportation use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. A program of the U.S. Department of Energy, they provide education, technical expertise, networking opportunities and funding assistance to help members invest in local, sustainable transportation solutions (wwcleancities.org). The City will research the feasibility of joining this coalition. Emissions Reduction: Emissions reductions in related measures EVERGREEN FLEETS Evergreen Fleets is a voluntary, tiered certification program that recognizes fleets for making smart, environmentally responsible choices that save fuel, improve operational efficiencies, and reduce air emissions. The City will research the feasibility of this certification. Emissions Reduction: Unknown EFFICIENT DRIVER TRAINING Include anti-idling, best practices, fueling, and acceleration practices to reduce fuel use. This could also be an online training format. Emissions Reduction: Included in Limit Idling measure above FLEET VEHICLE TELEMATICS Vehicle telematics, also known as Advanced Vehicle Locator (AVL) systems, are GPS-enabled locator devices that monitor and correct excessive idling, speeding, and other inefficiencies. This improves maintenance and overall driver performance. City fleet has a few vehicles with this technology; staff will review effectiveness and feasibility of wider use. Figure 19. Average daily roundtrip employee commuting vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by city worksite. Worksite goals were established during the Commute Trip Reduction worksite survey process.DAILY EMPLOYEE VMTCITY WORKSITE 2013/2014 2011/2012 2009/2010 2007/2008 0 3 6 9 12 15 Fire DeptPost PointPublic WorksJudicialITSDPoliceParksCivic CenterMuseum 2007 CAP Worksite Goals 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 129 page 62 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Transportation Emissions Reduction: 88 tons CO2e DIESEL EXHAUST RETROFITS Install a filter technology with either a passive or active cleaning system. This technology does not reduce greenhouse gas emissions but can reduce particulate matter by more than 85 percent. Requires regular maintenance and has temperature and opacity requirements. Emissions Reduction: Particulate emissions reduction only Employee Commute - Phase 1 Measures COMMUTE TRIP REDUCTION PROGRAM As part of the statewide Commute Trip Reduction Program (CTR), the City conducted a commuter survey of vehicle miles traveled per employee (VMT) by Civic Center and Public Works Operations employees in 1997 and every other year thereafter. In 2008, the City expanded the commuter survey to all other worksites, so the new CTR goal could be applied Citywide. The program established reduction goals of 25% in 2003 and 35% in 2009. The state revised these goals in 2006 to 13% VMT reduction and 10% drive alone rate reduction from 2008 levels by 2012. Whatcom Smart Trips is a program through the Whatcom Council of Governments in which City employees can earn rewards when they make trips by walking, biking, riding the bus, or carpooling. Since the Smart Trips program started in 2006, about 350 employees have participated, recording a total of 86,065 work trips for a total of 989,244 miles. Counting all trips (work, errands, school, etc.), employees have recorded a total of 107,260 trips for a total of 1,290,992 miles. In 2016, 118 employees participated, an increase from 72 employees in 2015. Status: Incomplete. Civic Center employees eventually met the 2009 goal in 2012 with 4.3 VMT per employee only to jump back up to 6 VMT in 2014 (Figure 19). Public Works Operations employees have increased VMT over the last 15 years from 8.57 VMT in 1997 to 9.4 employee VMT in 2014, but met the 13% reduction goal from 2009 to 2012. Only two of nine worksites have stayed below their respective VMT goals since 2008. Judicial and Support Services cut employee VMT from 2007 to 2014 by 26% while IT reduced per employee VMT by 25%. In 2014, no other worksites were meeting their 2008 goals. Civic Center, Parks, and Fire increased VMT in that period. Across worksites, the City achieved the 13% VMT reduction goal in 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 but not in 2013-2014. For drive alone rate, Post Point employees have easily met the 10% reduction goal every year since 2008. The only other worksites to meet this goal were Parks and IT in 2011-2012. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 130 page 63 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Transportation Emissions Reduction: 142 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: The City is discontinuing worksite commuting surveys except for the state-required sites (Civic Center and Public Works Operations). Employee education will continue in order to encourage commute trip reduction (see below). Employee Commute - Phase 2 Measures 35% REDUCTION IN EMPLOYEE COMMUTE MILES In the 2007 Climate Action Plan, the City proposed an internal goal to reduce vehicle miles traveled per employee (VMT) for all worksites by 35% from 2001 levels (4.86 VMT using an average of Civic Center and Public Works Operations 2001 VMT as baseline data). Status: Incomplete. City employees still have a long way to go to reach 4.86 VMT. The lowest recorded municipality-wide VMT was 7.12 VMT in 2011/2012 and in 2014 it increased to 8.30 VMT, requiring a 42% reduction to reach the 2007 goal. Similarly, the 2014 drive alone rate (82.0%) was higher than in 2007 (78.8%). Next Steps: The City is discontinuing worksite commuting surveys except for the state-required sites (Civic Center and Public Works Operations). Employee Commute – Phase 3 Measures FREE BUS PASSES Free quarterly bus passes are available to employees who commit to ride the bus to work on a regular basis. When the program started in 2008, 155 employees signed up for bus passes. Whatcom Transit Authority (WTA) ridership data showed a 51% increase in transit ridership for City employees over the five-month trial period. After one year, both City and County employee transit use increased by nearly two-thirds. In 2010, WTA increased the price from $15 to $52.50 per quarterly pass, so the City started requiring employees to make a certain number of trips per quarter to be eligible for a pass. Currently, about 30 employees sign up for passes each quarter. Status: Ongoing Goal: Double employee participation by 2020. Emissions Reduction: 18 tons CO2e Next Steps: Continue to encourage City employees to ride the bus to work and offer effective incentives. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 131 page 64 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Green Building Green Building Buildings - Phase 1 Measures LEED BUILDINGS In 2005, City Council resolved to use LEED (Leadership in Environmental and Energy Design) standards in the construction of all future municipal buildings over 5,000 square feet. Depot Market Square, home of the Bellingham Farmer’s Market, was completed in 2006 with a LEED Silver certification. Large steel beams were salvaged from the demolition of the Highway 99 bridge over the Skagit River and reused, saving about $255,000. A rain garden and pervious pavers allow infiltration of runoff. Puget Sound Energy installed a 14-panel, 2.4 kilowatt solar electric power system on the roof of one of the parking sheds in 2009. The City also uses Low-Impact Development standards focused on reducing stormwater run-off and conserving water. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Unknown Next Steps: Research feasibility and benefits of committing to a higher green building standard in municipal buildings such as Net Zero Energy. The Lightcatcher has a living roof that helps absorb rainwater, lower air temperatures, and improve insulation. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 132 page 65 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Green Building Buildings - Phase 3 Measures RECYCLED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS In August 2011, the City used 400 crushed recycled toilets to make 250 square yards of aggregate ‘poticrete’ to pave a sidewalk on Ellis Street. In collaboration with the Bellingham Housing Authority, the City diverted toilets from the landfill, crushed them, and tested them as an alternative to virgin aggregate. Test results demonstrated the ‘poticrete’ met City requirements for flatwork concrete. The final mix contained about 20% crushed toilets by volume and represents about 5 tons of material diverted from the landfill. Crushing the toilets costs about the same as using virgin aggregate from regional gravel pits and likely prevents carbon emissions. Upon successful completion of this project, the City revised the concrete specification to allow the use of similar materials, including crushed concrete for flatwork concrete aggregate in City projects. Crushed concrete would provide greater emissions reductions given the industry’s massive carbon emissions. In 2012, Bellingham received the first-ever Greenroads silver certification for the project. Greenroads requires a variety of sustainable roadway design concepts and construction specifications. Other unique features of the road included the first light-emitting diode (LED) streetlights in the City, first porous pavers pocket parking, rain gardens, infiltration ditches, bike lanes, and porous concrete. The project garnered national news. The City has now completed nine Greenroads-certified projects. Status: Ongoing Emissions reductions: Outside of current scope Next Steps: Increase use of recycled materials in City projects. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 133 page 66 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Waste Reduction Waste Reduction NOTE: Accurate municipal waste data is not available at this time so emissions reductions from these measures are not included. See Municipal Waste Monitoring measure below. Buildings - Phase 1 Measures CITY HALL RECYCLING In 2006, City staff expanded the City Hall recycling program to include mixed-container recycling. A Green Team was created, enlisting one or two representatives from each department, to help facilitate the implementation of the recycling program and disseminate information to City Hall employees. Status: Complete Next Steps: See below Buildings - Phase 2 Measures ALL CITY FACILITY RECYCLING In July 2008, the City Council committed to reducing garbage from City facilities as part of Sustainable Connections’ Toward Zero Waste campaign. In order to achieve this goal, the City implemented a variety of waste-reduction programs aimed at reducing waste by 50% in municipal facilities. Efforts focus on pre-cycling as well as increased recycling. In 2009, City Hall reduced its waste by half, modeling how to cut waste throughout municipal facilities. All City facilities also have Food Recycling bins available. The City also has specialty recycling of other items. Status: Ongoing Emissions reduction: Unknown Next Steps: Continue providing can and bottle recycling facilities and work to improve diversion rate. See Municipal Waste Monitoring measure below. Assess feasibility of providing Food Plus recycling in parks. Monitor use of Food Plus bins (See Municipal Waste Monitoring measure below). GREEN PURCHASING In April 2007, Bellingham City Council passed a resolution to encourage the purchase of environmentally preferable materials by all departments, as long as the price of the environmentally preferable product is 120% or less than the price of the conventional product. Environmentally friendly products include those that are energy efficient, recyclable, Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxin (PBT)-free, and/or made from post-consumer recycled material. The City purchases 30% to 100% post- consumer recycled paper, recycled paper toilet paper, recycled office supplies, green office equipment, and green cleaning supplies. Computers purchased by the City meet the “gold” or “silver” EPEAT (Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool) standard and are manufactured with minimal environmental impact including materials, energy consumption, and packaging. Status: Ongoing 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 134 page 67 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Waste Reduction Emissions reduction: Unknown Next Steps: Research latest trends and update purchasing policy. OPERATIONS AND EMPLOYEE ACTIONS In order to maximize the energy sav- ings from facilities improvements, the City will conduct a focus group to help develop best practices for waste reduction behavior in the workplace and at home . These materials can then be adapted and distributed to other large employers . Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 19 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Establish employee contacts in each department to communicate waste reduction information and materials Buildings - Phase 4 Proposed Measures MUNICIPAL WASTE MONITORING The City has implemented numerous internal municipal waste reduction actions but lacks accurate data to monitor progress. For this reason, the City will research methods to monitor waste volume and composition at our worksites. This could consist of quarterly monitoring of dumpster volumes at all worksites as well as a more in-depth survey of waste composition. This will allow the City to report more accurately on waste diversion rates to recycling and composting, and greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions reduction: Unknown WASTE REDUCTION PLAN Using data from the municipal waste monitoring, the City will develop a waste reduction plan to further decrease waste production. Emissions reduction: Unknown Recycling stations throughout City buildings make it easy for staff and visitors to reduce the waste they produce. Green Event Kits In 2014, over 3,000 staff and members of the public attend- ed City events with City-provided Green Event Kits that include compostable cups, plates, napkins, and utensils. Good-On-One-Side Notepads Green Government Team members collect used office paper that has only been printed on one side and turn it into notepads for staff use. Specialty Recycling In addition to the above-mentioned recycled items, the City also collects CFL bulbs, batteries, plastic film, metals. City surplus computers are recycled by an authorized green recycler. The recycler breaks down the computers in order to re-use as many elements as possible. Status: Ongoing Next Steps: Continue these practices City Waste Reduction 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 135 page 68 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Land Use Land Use CITY OF BELLINGHAM NATURAL SYSTEM PROTECTION AND RESTORATION The City preserves areas of ecological value that also store carbon in soils, wetlands, and trees. Protecting these areas prevents this stored carbon from entering the atmosphere and allows these ecosystems to continue absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. These areas also improve air and water quality, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and moderate air temperature in the city, which prevents the urban heat island effect. These ecological services are increasingly important as we continue emitting greenhouse gases and as the climate changes, worsening the effects of pollution and other ecosystem stressors. In this way, intact ecosystems make us more resilient to climate change. A number of policies and programs drive this work. The state Growth Management Act required environmental protection via a Critical Areas Ordinance. The Figure 20. City of Bellingham Habitat Enhancement Sites 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 136 page 69 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Municipal Measures | Land Use City of Bellingham Comprehensive Plan includes land use goals and policies that promote carbon sequestration through protection and conservation of forests, street trees, and landscape practices. The Lake Whatcom Property Acquisition Program protects over 2,000 acres of mostly forested property in the City’s municipal watershed. City Parks protect an additional several hundred acres of forested parkland. The City also restores degraded lands by planting native plants that absorb and store carbon. Currently, the City maintains 71 restoration sites (155 acres). In the 2015-2016 planting season City restoration crews and volunteers planted more than 25,000 native plants. Status: Ongoing Next Steps: Continue to protect and restore lands of ecological value. Quantify carbon storage of protected and restored lands. CITY OF BELLINGHAM CARBON FUND The City continues to preserve forestland in the City and in the Lake Whatcom watershed through the Lake Whatcom Watershed Property Acquisition Program to prevent impacts to our drinking water source from development. There may be an opportunity to account for the amount of carbon sequestered and sell carbon offset credits on the carbon cap-and-trade market. Alternatively, these credits could be used internally to offset City emissions. The first step is to inventory the amount of carbon sequestered in City properties that have prevented development, and the amount that will continue to be sequestered with forest growth and potential management regimes. This opportunity will be further researched and scoped for future consideration. Figure 21. Protected Land in the Lake Whatcom Watershed 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 137 page 70 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Residential - Phase 1 CLIMATE EDUCATION AND OUTREACH The City’s climate leadership positions it as a strong messenger. The Public Works Natural Resources Division currently engages in a number of education and outreach programs. Climate protection can be incorporated into these existing efforts and/or developed as a stand-alone educational program. Public education and outreach would have a synergistic effect, enhancing the effectiveness on nearly all other community action plan components. Ideally, the process should begin with research into existing attitudes, understandings and receptiveness, which will maximize the effectiveness of future efforts. Status: Incomplete. The City has not moved forward with a climate- specific education program. However, City staff worked closely with utilities and community members and organizations to support and promote the Georgetown Energy Prize competition (a.k.a. Bellingham Energy Prize), which encouraged homeowners to improve household energy efficiency.57 The City also posts climate protection resources on the City website such as the Climate Protection Action Plan, educational resources, and links to energy saving incentives for homeowners and businesses.58 In 2017, the City hired a new Education and Outreach Specialist to work part time. Goal: Reach 1000 residents annually who reduce energy use by 5%. Emissions Reduction: 727 tons CO2e per year. Community Measures Energy Efficiency and Conservation 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 138 page 71 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Next Steps: The climate outreach strategy will prioritize opportunities to engage municipal and community audiences in a variety of emissions reduction activities discussed elsewhere in this report, including energy efficient behaviors, limiting vehicle idling, using biofuels, and using alternative transportation. Residential - Phase 2 Measures COMMUNITY ENERGY CHALLENGE In 2009, multiple community partners including the City of Bellingham and Sustainable Connections, the Opportunity Council, Puget Sound Energy, Cascade Natural Gas, and others came together to begin an energy efficiency campaign called the Community Energy Challenge (CEC). Operating in Whatcom, Skagit, Island, and San Juan counties, this program provides whole-building energy assessments for homes and businesses, resulting in a list of prioritized upgrades from no- to low-cost actions, as well as financing options for larger retrofits.59 Participants can access utility rebate programs for lighting and insulation improvements, sealing, and more efficient appliances. Puget Sound Energy and Cascade Natural Gas assist the program in a number of ways including co-marketing, and financial support.60 The Building Performance Center, an affiliate of the Opportunity Council, provides weatherization training for contractors and other community action programs in one of the state’s three state-of-the art building performance training facilities.61 62 The Opportunity Council also weatherizes low-income homes. Recently, the CEC introduced a sliding scale pilot for families just above low-income levels, which reduces the upfront audit cost and increases incentives based on income.63 The pilot will continue through the middle of 2017 and may be expanded. Through the end of 2016, the low-income program served five Bellingham households, which are expected to save more than 30% on annual utility bills. According to an analysis of the program, the CEC catalyzed $14 million in direct economic activity and resulted in more than $793,000 in energy savings per year from 2010 to 2014. In addition, more than 80 jobs have been supported by the program. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 755 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Community partners should continue with the CEC. Future projects include deep energy retrofits, in which homeowners or owners of rental units pair more extensive energy upgrades with planned remodels of a residential unit. CEC will encourage the inclusion of deep energy retrofits in already-planned remodel projects. Activities will include development of educational materials for homeowners and builders that emphasize long- term savings, presentations to the 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 139 page 72 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation City’s Permit Center staff, and other educational activities. PUGET SOUND ENERGY INCENTIVES PSE offers free Home Energy Assessments that include up to 20 free LED lightbulbs, as well as a suite of rebates and incentives for household upgrades to more energy efficient technologies. PSE recently expanded its multi-family program and also provides incentives for replacement of old refrigerators in multifamily dwellings. In 2016, PSE completed a Sweeps Campaign to distribute free LED lightbulbs and energy efficiency information via targeted mailing and door-to-door canvassing. PSE also partnered with Lowes to further engage Bellingham residents with energy- efficient products, hosting two events at Lowes in Bellingham in September 2016. The Sweeps Campaign delivered 5,861 LEDs to 2,000 individuals for an estimated annual energy savings of 7,546,038 kWh in Bellingham. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 47 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Puget Sound Energy is bringing a program to Bellingham that will enroll three Bellingham/Whatcom Housing properties and monitor operational and behavioral changes for both facilities and tenants, with a goal of achieving 5% savings. CASCADE NATURAL GAS INCENTIVES Cascade Natural Gas offers rebates for energy-efficient furnaces, high efficiency or tankless hot water heaters, whole house sealing, fireplaces and hearth sealing, improving insulation to higher R thresholds, and Energy Star whole-house rebates for new construction. Additional services offered by CNG include free home weatherization and energy efficiency improvements for low- income households offered through local community action agencies and Washington’s Weatherization Assistance Program. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 30 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Cascade Natural Gas anticipates increasing conservation program goals for Bellingham, and is striving to increase rebate payments where feasible in the next year, increasing outreach efforts to customers, and expanding its low- income program offerings.64 Residential - Phase 3 Measures TOWARD NET ZERO ENERGY This is a pilot project designed to identify and understand the most cost- effective ways to achieve maximum energy savings in residential retrofit construction. The Community Energy Challenge, a partnership of the Opportunity Council and Sustainable Connections, is seeking qualified contractors to participate in a new pilot project offering funding, technical 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 140 page 73 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation assistance, and marketing support to companies seeking to hone their expertise in high performance energy- efficient building practices. Typical single-family residential retrofits through the CEC achieve an average of 20-25% energy savings. The new pilot builds upon this success by utilizing local contractors to complete retrofits achieving 50% or greater energy reductions while maintaining or improving indoor air quality. There are currently four homes receiving net-zero upgrades through this project, with expected completion by spring 2017. Energy models project energy savings in the four homes will meet or exceed 50%.65 Status: Ongoing Goal: Reduce 15 tons CO2e Next Steps: The Building Performance Center will be developing materials for contractors interested in learning more about the materials and techniques used to get to Net Zero. Sustainable Connections has written a grant proposal to fund a series of Net Zero trainings for building professionals in 2017. Partners will continue work to identify the necessary incentives and marketing to expand net zero to multi- family owners. CITY OF BELLINGHAM WATER USE EFFICIENCY PROGRAM The City of Bellingham recognizes that water and energy are inextricably linked: It takes energy to treat and transport drinking water from the City’s water treatment plant to households and businesses. The City’s Water Use Efficiency Program partners with the Opportunity Council and Sustainable Connections to deliver water use efficiency services via the Community Energy Challenge (see above). Each participating household and business is provided with water quality information, a full energy assessment, a water assessment for City of Bellingham water customers, a customized energy action plan detailing cost-effective actions, assistance with utility and tax rebates (water and energy), identification of reliable contractors, and quality assurance. Residential water customers participating in the CEC have access to rebates for purchase and installation of WaterSense-labeled toilets or a qualified energy and water efficient clothes washer. Under this option, approximately 144 rebates have been issued, saving about 1.1 million gallons of water over a five-year period. Commercial water customers participating in the CEC are also eligible for rebates on water-efficient equipment, ranging from toilets, commercial clothes washers, and commercial kitchen equipment. The City also offers free water conservation kits to its water customers. These include one low-flow showerhead, a kitchen and a bathroom faucet aerator, and toilet leak detection tablets. This program saves electricity in City facilities and also results in water and energy savings for end users. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 4 tons CO2e per year RESIDENTIAL WATER METERING The City completed a residential water- metering program to install about 15,000 water meters in 2017. Metering has been shown to reduce consumer use by tying water use to cost, with 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 141 page 74 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation corresponding reductions in the energy needed to treat and distribute water. Status: Complete Emissions Reduction: 54 tons CO2e CITY-SPONSORED HOUSING REHABILITATION & CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMS The City of Bellingham Home Rehabilitation Program uses federal grants to pay for home rehabilitation for owner-occupied low-income homes. Although these renovations are focused on health and safety, improved energy efficiency is usually a side-effect of the rehabilitation. For example, the City requires Energy Star-rated appliances when it pays for appliance upgrades. The program coordinates with the Opportunity Council for additional energy upgrades when possible. A citywide Housing Levy was passed by voters in 2012 to increase and maintain affordable housing stock. New construction and renovation projects funded by the Levy are required to be built to the state’s Evergreen Sustainable Development Standard that sets a high threshold for energy efficiency and other sustainability features. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Unknown Next Steps: Review green building standards to ensure that the latest energy efficiency methods and technologies are included in this program. WHATCOM HOUSING AUTHORITY RETROFITS The Bellingham Whatcom Housing Authority is a local government agency with about 3,000 units that house over 7,000 residents in Whatcom County. The Housing Authority works to provide needed housing in the community for low-income families, seniors, and people with disabilities. The Housing Authority has completed energy efficiency retrofit projects on all of its properties within city limits. Status: Complete Emissions Reduction: Unknown BELLINGHAM ENERGY PRIZE Bellingham finished 3rd in the nationwide Georgetown University Energy Prize (locally known as the Bellingham Energy Prize), a two- year contest between 50 mid-size cities to reduce residential and municipal energy use. The City of Bellingham partnered with Bellingham Public Schools, Cascade Natural Gas, Community Energy 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 142 page 75 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Challenge, Opportunity Council, Puget Sound Energy, RE Sources for Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Connections, Northwest Clean Air Agency, and Western Washington University. To increase participation in the competition, the City and its partners reached out to the community by disseminating information on energy conservation programs in new ways, and by reaching new audiences that may not have been part of other efforts. These activities included a large employer campaign; enhanced canvassing; neighborhood involvement; local bus, garbage truck, and television ads; low-income outreach; a middle school energy efficiency and conservation contest; and utility bill inserts. Status: Complete Emissions Reduction: See related measures BELLINGHAM ENERGY PRIZE ONLINE ENERGY CENTER In partnership with the City, Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade Natural Gas, Sustainable Connections set up an online Energy Center website for residents to track their electricity and natural gas use, find ways to save energy, compare their energy use to neighbors, and win prizes like free utilities for a month and a free bike. The Energy Center supported the Bellingham Energy Prize (see above), and in 2016 was viewed 8,300 times with 1,124 signed up residents, 305 of whom also linked their utilities. Status: Discontinued due to lack of funding Emissions Reduction: 81 tons CO2e in 2016 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND THE REAL ESTATE MARKET Efforts are underway to better connect efficiency programs and real estate professionals. The Community Energy Challenge completed educational classes with realtors in 2015 and 2016 to educate them on the benefits to owners of efficient homes. Bellingham Energy Prize team members also conducted both resident and real estate education at the annual Building Industry Association of Whatcom County Home Shows in both years. As a foundation for future activity, the WWU economics department has received a $309,304 grant from the Sloan Foundation to conduct a two- year study on the impact of energy efficiency on housing prices with the Opportunity Council and its Building Performance Center. The study will document a home’s expected annual energy usage to see whether more efficient homes sell for a premium. The study will also examine how upgrading efficiency of a less efficient home impacts its market price. As part of the study, the Building Performance Center will provide the energy audits and modeling on 600 homes on the market.66 Status: Ongoing Goal: 600 audited households achieve average energy reductions. Emissions Reduction: 340 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: See Residential Energy Performance Ratings and Multifamily 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 143 page 76 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation and Commercial Benchmarking measures below. PROJECT RENT In 2015, The Wstern Washington University (WWU) Institute for Energy Studies and the WWU Office of Sustainability collaborated to start Project RENT (Reducing ENergy with Tenants) to provide energy efficiency outreach and education to the 11,000 students living off-campus. Puget Sound Energy, Cascade Natural Gas, and the Opportunity Council trained 12 student Energy Educators to go into student neighborhoods to promote local energy resources such as PSE’s Home Energy Assessments, free Energy-Saving Kits from Cascade Natural Gas, and smart powerstrips. They also provided energy conservation education and helped with basic installations. During the 2015-2016 school year, Project RENT consulted nearly 70 off-campus students and distributed 100 water-saving kits (which included a low-flow showerhead, kitchen and bathroom sink aerators, and toilet leak detector tablets) and 200 LED lightbulbs to off-campus students. Analysis of post-program surveys revealed that students who engaged in Project RENT became significantly more aware of local energy efficiency programs and practiced more energy efficient behaviors than before participating in the program. Participating students receive periodic reports that track their energy use and can be involved in competitions to reduce energy use. More information here: www.energytrans.org/project- rent.html Status: This pilot program ended in June 2016 but WWU’s Office of Sustainability is examining results of the project and may implement a permanent version when a new funding source can be secured. Emissions Reduction: 20 tons CO2e in 2016 Next Steps: WWU students created a prototype Sustainability Index website allowing students to share current energy information of rental properties, as well as other information useful for locating a quality, efficient, and safe rental. This concept is loosely based on a Rent Rocket web site that is running in several university towns in the Midwest. The website will help off- campus students choose their rental homes based on several sustainability factors, including the energy use of that home. The site would produce both an energy-related “Utility Score” and a more general “Community Score” combining other features of sustainability such as a high walk score, or being on a bus line. The effort has created a prototype for collecting renter data and is starting to populate it in the testing phase. This program is fully funded and is expected to be launched in Spring 2017. There are 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 144 page 77 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation plans for the future version of Project RENT to work in close collaboration with the Sustainability Index, with outreach providing both renter energy information, and encouraging students to sign up on the site. MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY City staff and partners are working to expand energy conservation in multi-family dwelling through financing or incentive programs that work around the “split incentive” problem with rental housing. In 2016, City staff worked with PSE’s Multi-family Retrofit Program to provide Bellingham-specific marketing to potential customers in larger apartment buildings. As a result, 103 units were assessed, and one ten-unit building was set up for direct install LEDs, new ventilation fans, refrigerators, and windows. This, however, represents a relatively small number of larger multifamily buildings in Bellingham. The Community Energy Challenge also expanded commercial audits to include some large multi-family buildings. In 2016, the program audited the large Leopold senior housing complex and changed out all 91 residents’ showerheads, kitchen and restroom aerators, and they will soon be converting all of the common area lighting to LED. Expected savings are $3,017 in gas costs per year for the low-flow fixtures and $5,375 in electric costs for the lighting upgrade. WWU’s Institute for Energy Studies students are researching the feasibility of a “green lease” program to assist in resolving incentive issues and provide behavioral and technical components of energy efficiency for both landlords and tenants. One part of the program could target master-metered rental properties for conservation efforts. Larger properties could access ESCO’s (energy service companies) that do retrofits with guaranteed savings. The City’s Water Use Efficiency Program will also provide incentives for water use efficiency retrofits that result in energy savings. Status: Ongoing. Increasing multifamily projects proved difficult. Goal: Achieve above reductions every year at minimum, as well as 15 million kWh saved from PSE’s upcoming program below. Emissions Reduction: 1,392 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Partners will continue work to identify the necessary incentives and marketing to expand energy efficiency and conservation programs to multifamily owners. Puget Sound Energy is bringing a program to Bellingham that will enroll three Bellingham/Whatcom Housing properties and monitor operational and behavioral changes for both facilities and tenants, with a goal of achieving 5% savings. This could amount to about 15 million kWh savings for the 424 units involved. BELLINGHAM PUBLIC SCHOOLS ENERGY EFFICIENCY Bellingham Public Schools have a record of substantial investments in energy efficiency as facilities are renovated or rebuilt. Resource Conservation Management work is incorporated into the work plans of key facilities management staff, 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 145 page 78 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation who have developed the expertise to continually develop and implement projects resulting in steady reductions in energy use. All schools are now benchmarked on the ENERGY STAR® Portfolio Manager, with some rated at 100 percent. Energy efficiency projects have been incorporated into recent school levies, and additional resources have resulted from successful grant applications. Retrofit projects for the first half of 2015 included replacement of 245 lights with LEDs in Bellingham High School, and installations of 625 LED fixtures at Geneva Elementary School. Additional lighting upgrades were completed at five other schools or facilities, for a total savings of 433,661 kWh for lighting annually. In the second half of the year, outdated control systems were replaced with electronic control systems at four elementary schools. A rebuild of Sehome High School and the new Options High School both exceed the Washington Sustainable Schools Protocol, which is equivalent to LEED Silver building standards. Bellingham Public Schools also helped promote the Bellingham Energy Prize. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Unknown Next Steps: Classroom lighting continues to be upgraded to LEDs. A bond measure will be on the ballot in February 2018 and will include a wholesale change to LED lamps across the district and low-energy rebuilds of three elementary schools GREEN CLASSROOM CERTIFICATION PROGRAM In partnership with the City, ReSources for Sustainable Communities continued to implement its Green Classroom Certification program that provides education on energy, water, and resource management at area elementary schools. This program is partially funded by the City and it provides in-class education and behavioral tips to save energy at school. This program was adapted in 2015 and 2016 for the Bellingham Energy Prize (see above) to provide additional educational materials focused on residential conservation and encouraging parents to sign up for energy services. During 2016, 83 elementary classrooms either attained their Green Classroom Certificate or began working towards attaining this Certificate in 2017. Some examples of the conservation activities that these classrooms pledged to practice during 2016 include using natural lighting in classrooms when possible, turning off electronics not in use, and avoiding water waste when washing hands. ReSources also worked with three high school and 12 middle school classrooms in 2016. ReSources has added a focus on the water-energy nexus to its water conservation programs in middle and high schools, with the goal of raising awareness about the indirect energy use associated with using water. Status: Ongoing 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 146 page 79 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Emissions Reductions: Unknown Commercial - Phase 1 Measures WESTERN WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY SUSTAINABILITY In 2007, WWU created an Office of Sustainability to oversee a wide range of initiatives and continue its efforts toward becoming a national model for campus sustainability. • WWU Climate Action Plan - In 2007, the University approved a Climate Action Plan and began tracking its greenhouse gas emissions with the goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. • Go for the Green - This energy- reduction residence hall campaign resulted in over 20 percent energy use reduction. • 10x12 Program - This program reduced overall campus energy use by 10 percent by the end of 2012. The university contracted for $3.2 million in building energy retrofits, resulting in annual savings of $244,000 in year one, 7.8 percent carbon emissions reduction, 8 percent natural gas reduction, 8 percent water use reduction, and 7.5 percent electricity use reduction. In spring 2016, Puget Sound Energy recognized WWU for more than 20 projects the two entities have partnered on together, and for the energy savings accrued through the campus’ behavior change campaigns. These campaigns resulted in more than 5 million kilowatt hours saved and $750,000 from PSE in incentive funding. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 250 tons CO2e per year COUNTY COURTHOUSE EFFICIENCY This measure includes a number of actions taken at county facilities. Most of this reduction has been achieved through lighting and HVAC upgrades and intense energy management at the County Courthouse and jail facilities. Status: Complete Industrial - Phase 1 Measures BELLINGHAM COLD STORAGE ENERGY EFFICIENCY Prior to the 2007 Climate Action Plan, Bellingham Cold Storage (BCS) implemented a number of energy-efficiency actions, including an integrated energy management system, increased insulation, automatic doors, lighting upgrades and installation of variable speed drives. These actions allowed the business to grow without a significant increase in energy consumption, saving an estimated 10-20 million kWh annually. According to their website, “BCS has continued to adopt the latest technology to reduce power consumption. New refrigeration control systems at both plants have reduced power consumption by 4.8 million kWh per year. In addition, we have replaced more than 70 percent of the facility’s older halogen fixtures with more energy efficient florescent lighting, reducing consumption by approximately 800,000 kWh per year.” BCS also promotes alternative transportation for employee commuting, has been recognized by 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 147 page 80 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation EPA as one of the “Best Workplaces for Commuters,” and twice won the Governor’s Award for innovation in workplace commuting. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 73 tons CO2e Next Steps: Convert to LED lighting. This will save 168,434 kWh and prevent 73 tons of CO2e per year. A new energy audit of refrigeration is also underway. Residential/Commercial—Phase 4 Measures WATERFRONT DISTRICT ENERGY The City and Port of Bellingham drafted a Waterfront District Sub-Area Plan to rebuild a 180-acre site once used by the Georgia-Pacific pulp and paper mill. The plan includes exploring development of advanced energy systems on the site, and “additional piping and infrastructure to support the long-term development of district heating and cooling, on-site energy generation, and wastewater reuse.” Bellingham waterfront. Image: Bellingham Herald 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 148 page 81 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation The City took the next step to examine this as part of its utility planning by reviewing and updating the feasibility numbers.67 The report also estimates that a district energy project would substantially reduce overall energy use in the area, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Micro-hydro was also considered but was found to be unfeasible. This district could expand beyond the waterfront area, and separate energy districts should be considered in other parts of the city. This project is still being assessed for feasibility. Emissions Reductions: 609 tons CO2e per year SINGLE-FAMILY RENTAL HOUSING OUTREACH Bellingham has a significant single- family rental house population due in part to the 14,000+ enrolled students at Western Washington University (WWU) and surrounding neighborhoods that house a significant number of these students in off- campus housing. While tenants most often do not have the expendable income to make upgrades in their rental homes, behavior change education can be implemented, with an emphasis on utility bill savings that result through energy-saving habits. WWU’s Project RENT (see above) has implemented this on a pilot basis. Additional engagement with property management companies and landlords to increase awareness of energy efficiency programs available to them will further address this under-tapped sector. To supplement this effort, utilities could set up energy displays at colleges, with an emphasis on LED upgrades and other low-cost actions. In addition, students could be provided with tools to assess their own off-campus housing to identify other potential energy saving activities. Such a program could begin at Western Washington University given its large local enrollment, but an expanded campaign could be appropriate for Bellingham Technical College and Whatcom Community College. This program could be facilitated though the rental inspection program. Emissions Reductions: 20 tons CO2e per year per Project RENT results PUGET SOUND ENERGY STREETLIGHTS LED UPGRADE The City pays for an additional 1,700 streetlights owned and operated by Puget Sound Energy, which have not Bill SavingsGreen JobsCO2 Emissions Owner DisclosesEnergy Rating Buyers/Renters Fully Informed Buyers/Renters Favor Effcient Properties Market Values Energy Performance Owners Invest in Energy Efficient Upgrades Figure 22. Energy benchmarking and reporting allows tenants to make choices based on energy efficiency. This figure was sourced from the City of Seattle. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 149 page 82 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation been upgraded to high-efficiency LED (light-emitting diode) bulbs. City staff will work with PSE to assess the feasibility of upgrading these streetlights. Emissions Reductions: 413 tons CO2e MULTI-FAMILY & COMMERCIAL BUILDING BENCHMARKING A building energy benchmarking and reporting policy would require multi- family and commercial buildings to track and report their energy use. This would allow tenants to choose energy- efficient homes and workplaces, and would introduce energy efficiency into the marketplace (Figure 22). This could be modeled after successful policies in Seattle and 24 other U.S. cities. The City of Portland, Oregon organized an energy conservation contest between businesses that used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s free energy-tracking tool called Energy Star Portfolio Manager, the use of which has resulted in 7% energy savings over three years, according to EPA. This could provide a model to pilot a benchmarking program. Research at WWU will help inform this process (see Energy Efficiency and the Real Estate Market measure above). Goal: Benchmark all multifamily and commercial buildings by 2030 Emissions Reductions: 1102 tons CO2e RESIDENTIAL ENERGY PERFORMANCE RATINGS Residential energy performance ratings would allow renters and buyers to consider energy efficiency in their decisions, effectively introducing energy efficiency into the marketplace, as with benchmarking (Figure 22). Ratings would also help agencies and utilities track progress in energy efficiency across the community. This could be incorporated with the City’s recent rental registration program. Goal: Rate 90% of residential properties by 2025. Emissions Reductions: 28,207 tons CO2e Residential/Commercial/Industrial Phase 4 Stretch Measures GREEN LEASES FOR CITY TENANTS The City owns numerous commercial rental properties that are leased to various tenants. Updating these leases to include required energy efficiency and conservation measures — also known as green leases — would save energy and reduce emissions. According to the Institute for Market Transformation, green leases can reduce energy consumption in office buildings by 11-22%. Goal: Implement green leases as existing leases are renewed. Emissions Reductions: 312 tons CO2e WEATHERIZATION REQUIREMENTS The City will research the feasibility of requiring weatherization upgrades for buildings at the time of sale, which could include insulation, double- paned windows, and other energy- saving upgrades. Goal: Reduce residential energy use of sold homes by 15%. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 150 page 83 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Energy Efficiency and Conservation Emissions Reductions: 1,678 tons CO2e INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY The industrial sector accounts for 23% of Bellingham energy use. Engaging businesses in the industrial sector to adopt energy efficiency measures could reduce emissions from this sector. This could include existing incentive programs as well as industry- specific programs such as Puget Sound Energy’s Industrial System Optimization Program and the U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Accelerator Program’s Superior Energy Performance Certification, which uses the ISO 50001 global energy management system standard, “emphasizing measurable savings through a transparent, independent, and highly regarded verification process.” Companies that join USDOE’s Better Plants Challenge commit to reducing energy intensity by 25% over 10 years. The International Energy Agency reported in 2012 that energy efficiency improvements could reduce global industrial energy demand by 26%. Goal: Reduce overall Industrial sector energy use 15% below 2015 levels by 2030 in addition to getting one quarter of industrial businesses to commit to the USDOE’s Better Plants Challenge goal of 25% energy reduction by 2030. Emissions Reductions: 2,542 tons CO2e 2030 DISTRICTS 2030 Districts commit to reducing building energy use, water consumption, and transportation emissions by 50% by 2030. Communities across the country are forming 2030 Districts led by the private sector to focus efficiencies and efforts such as district energy, benchmarking, energy ratings, collective buying power, and green building standards. This model could work well in densely populated areas like Bellingham’s downtown and urban villages. Emissions Reductions: Unknown 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 151 page 84 Community Measures | Renewable Energy page 84 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Renewable Energy 0 50 100 150 200 2016201520142013201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001NUMBER OF SOLAR PERMITSYEAR Figure 23. Number of solar permits issued per year by City of Bellingham Residential - Phase 1 Measures GREEN POWER PURCHASES Even before the Bellingham Green Power Community Challenge (see sidebar), Bellingham residents and businesses were participating in Puget Sound Energy’s Green Power Program. In this program, customers pay an additional $4 to $12 per month to help fund the development of renewable energy sources. In 2005, 1,368 customers participated in the program and purchased approximately 8,083,100 kWh. In 2014, 6,083 residential and business customers participated and purchased 35,744,548 kWh—a 342 percent increase since 2005. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reductions: 18,922 tons CO2e per year Residential - Phase 3 Measures SOLAR PERMITTING IMPROVEMENTS In 2009, Bellingham became the first city in Washington State to offer a solar panel permit exemption program. In an effort to reduce costs for solar projects, the City of Bellingham adopted a policy to exempt small rooftop solar installations from standard structural review and building permits on single family, two family and town home buildings (electrical permits are still required).68 A similar exemption was approved for solar hot water heating projects.69 The cost of solar panels is also excluded when determining permit fees for non-residential buildings. Program participants can 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 152 page 85 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Renewable Energy 0 50 100 150 200 2016201520142013201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001NUMBER OF SOLAR PERMITSYEAR Bellingham Green Power Challenge As part of the City’s 2016 Energy Year, Puget Sound Energy launched the Bellingham Green Power Challenge with the goal of enrolling 400 more homes in Green Power. Participants pay extra on their electric bills to support wind, solar, and/or biomass energy projects. In seven months, Bellingham residents almost doubled the goal with 779 enrolled, earning the City a $50,000 grant to install a solar array on a visible building that will contribute to education on solar power’s potential. This effort mirrored the 2006 Belling- ham Green Power Community Challenge when the City, PSE, and Sustainable Connections partnered to promote participation in the Puget Sound Energy Green Power Program among Bellingham businesses and residents. In six months, the Bellingham community nearly doubled its green power purchases. As a result of these cam- paigns, Bellingham is the #3 jurisdiction in the PSE service territory for Green Power. Status: Completed in 2006 and again in 2016 save more than $2,000 in fees and get an expedited, two-week permit review. Streamlined permitting and experienced local installers have put Bellingham into the lead in the region in residential installed systems per capita. From 2009 to 2010, City-issued permits for solar installations and upgrades doubled and continued to climb each year, reaching 145 in 2015 (Figure 23). In May 2016, Bellingham had 3,349 kW of residential solar capacity and 609 kW of commercial solar capacity. In 2016, Bellingham businesses and residents produced 3,037,439 kWh of solar power, preventing over 2,300 tons of CO2e emissions, about the same as the annual emissions from 450 cars. That’s enough to power 225 homes for a year. Evidence suggests that many residents will increase their energy efficiency when they install solar. Status: Ongoing Goal: Increase solar capacity in residential, commercial, and industrial sectors by 10% every year. An accelerated goal would increase residential solar by an additional 5% every year. Emissions Reductions: 608 tons per year Next Steps: Develop a per capita solar capacity goal. Include solar site orientation information on subdivision maps to provide for passive solar heating and cooling opportunities. Find new ways to promote solar power in Bellingham. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 153 page 86 Community Measures | Renewable Energy page 86 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update SOLARIZE WHATCOM Solarize Whatcom was a community solar purchasing campaign organized by Sustainable Connections with help from installers Ecotech Solar and Western Solar and local solar panel manufacturer Itek Energy. This campaign offered the best value for homeowners and businesses for easy solar installations on their homes, businesses, or multi-family units. Benefits to participants included a free solar workshop, free site assessment, competitive flat rate pricing from vetted local installers, and low interest loans. Puget Sound Cooperative Credit Union offered a special rate for participants as low as 4.25% and up to $50,000. The campaign was a resounding success, with 47 contracts signed, $1.2 million in solar investment, and 311.15 kW of new solar capacity. A large solar array will be donated to the Food Bank by Itek, with installation provided by Western Solar and Ecotech. This model of tying a residential install campaign with donated solar for a non-profit is a replicable model for solar installations, as it not only encourages more residential capacity, but provides additional motivation by helping improve the long-term finances of popular local non-profits. These win-win campaigns also raise the profile of solar in the community more generally.70 Status: Complete. Emissions Reductions: 168 tons per year WASHINGTON GOES SOLAR CAMPAIGN ReSources for Sustainable Communities started this program in 2017 to help homeowners and businesses get hassle-free solar installation while helping RE Sources earn a free solar array from Ecotech Solar and Itek Energy. Benefits to participants include a free solar workshop, free site assessment, competitive pricing from vetted local installers, and low interest loans. Status: Ongoing Goal: 155 tons CO2e per year Commercial - Phase 1 Measures WWU SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM In 2007, WWU created an Office of Sustainability to oversee a wide range of initiatives and continue its efforts toward becoming a national model for campus sustainability. WWU approved a Climate Action Plan and began tracking its greenhouse gas emissions 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 154 page 87 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Renewable Energy with the goal of achieving climate neutrality by 2050. • WWU Green Power - Beginning in 2005, WWU became the first institution in the nation to offset 100 percent of its electricity use with renewable energy credits. This decision followed a vote by the student body that overwhelmingly supported an increase quarterly fees to pay the premium cost. Students each pay approximately $10 more each quarter to help offset 40 million kilowatt hours of electricity with wind energy through the Puget Sound Energy Green Power Program. WWU remains one of the nation’s top-20 buyers of renewable energy among academic institutions as recognized by the US EPA. Like the City, WWU will enroll in PSE’s Green Direct Program to more directly fund new windmill construction in eastern Washington. • WWU Sustainable Action Fund - Formerly called the Green Energy Fee, the Sustainable Action Fund Fee was adopted by students in 2009 to raise over $300,000 annually for on campus pilot projects. One project included a $167,000 solar array on the Environmental Studies Building. The fee also helps pay for Green Power purchases (see above). Emissions Reduction: 19,799 tons CO2e per year COUNTY GREEN POWER In September 2006, the Whatcom County Council voted to begin buying renewable energy credits through the Puget Sound Energy Green Power Program to offset 100 percent of the electricity used by county government, and became a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Green Power Partner. In 2014, the County bought credits equal to 5,800,000 kWh of electricity. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: 2,871 tons CO2e per year Commercial - Phase 4 Measures WATERFRONT DISTRICT ENERGY This measure is also included in the Energy Efficiency and Conservation section due to overlapping emissions reductions. The City and Port of Bellingham drafted a Waterfront District Sub-Area Plan to rebuild a 180-acre site once used by the Georgia- Pacific pulp and paper mill. The plan includes exploring development of advanced energy systems on the site, including “additional piping and infrastructure to support the long- term development of district heating and cooling, on-site energy generation, and wastewater reuse.”71 The City took the next step to examine this as part of its utility planning by reviewing and updating the feasibility numbers. The report also estimates that a district energy project would substantially reduce overall energy use in the area, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Micro-hydro was also considered but found to be unfeasible. This district could expand beyond the waterfront area, and separate energy districts should be considered in other parts of the city. This project is still being assessed for feasibility. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 155 page 88 Community Measures | Renewable Energy page 88 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Goal: Reduce future waterfront emissions by 90%. Emissions Reduction: 3,045 tons CO2e per year Residential / Commercial Phase 4 Stretch Measures COMMUNITY SOLAR Community solar allows residents who can’t install solar panels on their homes to lease panels from a centralized, off-site solar array. Power generated from leased panels is metered and subtracted from the lessee’s home electricity bill. In 2017, the Bellingham community is seeking to expand this model of linking solar purchases to assisting low income communities by working with the Opportunity Council to explore community solar projects that could result in permanently lower bills for residents of low income housing. The City of Bellingham energy intern assists this project. MORE EFFICIENT ENERGY DISTRIBUTION Microgrids and smart grids are possible solutions for more efficient electricity distribution that will require extensive planning between municipalities and utilities. Integrating land use and infrastructure planning could optimize opportunities for heat exchange between sources that generate excess heat (e.g. data centers or sewer lines) and buildings that require additional heat (e.g. office buildings or apartments). SUPPORT RESIDENTIAL WIND POWER Research and develop policies and incentives for residential wind power to increase local renewable energy production. Ensure that City permits and codes allow for residential wind turbines. Empowering Lydia Place In a unique partnership between Western So- lar, iTek Energy, and Aslan Brewing Company, funds from the sale of Aslan’s Summer Solar Ale were donated to help install solar panels on Lydia Place, a non-profit agency serving home- less families. The solar panels will offset power use in Lydia Place’s Baker Place location, saving money on electric bills. This partnership highlights the many opportunities for multiple benefits – economic, environmental, social -- when addressing climate change. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 156 page 89 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Transportation Transportation Transportation - Phase 1 Measures SSC BIODIESEL In 2005, Sanitary Service Corporation (SSC) began running 60 garbage trucks on B20 biodiesel. This was later changed to B5 (5% biodiesel, 95% petrodiesel). SSC’s use of B5 prevents about 156 tons of CO2 emissions per year, equal to taking 30 passenger cars off the road for a year.72 SSC is now in the process of switching trucks to compressed natural gas (see below). Status: Complete CAR SHARING Car sharing programs allow occasional needs for a vehicle to be met without the burden of ownership, while also reducing the number of cars on the road. Such programs can help two- or three-car households revert to one car, or even provide for all of the private vehicle needs for some residents. In 2006, a non-profit organization called Community Car Share began offering Bellingham residents access to the use of a shared vehicle paid for on a per- use basis. Community Car Share went under in 2010, but in 2014 Western Washington University began a car- sharing program with two cars through Zipcar, a nationwide membership- based car-sharing company. Faculty, staff, students and community members can join this program. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Unknown Transportation - Phase 2 Measures VEHICLE MODE SHIFT The Bellingham Comprehensive Plan 2016 Update outlines a mode shift goal to reduce total trips by automobile from the current rate of 87% of all trips to 70% of all trips by 2022 and 60% of all trips Steady increases to the availability and convenience of public transportation will make Bellingham much more friendly to pedestrians and cyclists. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 157 page 90 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Transportation Figure 22. Historic (2000-2014) and long-term (2016-2036) transportation mode shift goals 20001 2005-20092 2010-20143 20164 20264 20364 Work From Home WTA Public Transit Bicycle Pedestrian Multi-OccupantVehicle and Taxi5 SingleOccupant Vehicle 1) Table P030: 2000 U.S. Census Summary; Means of Transportation to Work 2) Table B08301: 2009-2013 Average from American Community Survey (U.S. Census) 3) Table S0801: 2010-2014 Average from American Community Survey (U.S. Census) 4) 2015 baseline and long-term mode shift goals [Monitor annual in TRAM; update goals in 2026 Comp Plan] 5) Taxi includes ridesharing organizations, such as “Uber” and “Lyft” 5.2% 3.6% 2.6% 2.6% 11.7% 70.2%67.9%68.4%66.5%61.0%50.0% 10.0% 12.0% 12.0% 9.0% 7.0%6.5%6.0% 6.0% 4.5% 8.5% 8.5% 5.4%5.5% 5.9% 4.1% 7.3% 9.3% 5.0% 3.5% 8.2% 8.1% 7.0% 7.0% 9.5% 9.0% transport mode share trends long-term mode shift goals 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 158 page 91 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Transportation by 2036 (Figure 22). The goal outlines a steady increase in other modes and a concurrent decrease in the use of automobiles. Achieving this goal is expected to depend on the success of a number of factors including the Whatcom Smart Trips program, the Social Data Individualized Marketing program, land use decisions, a steady increase in availability and convenience of mass transit (Whatcom Transportation Authority’s Go Lines in particular) as well as a widespread effort to make the city more pedestrian- and bicycle- friendly. Achieving this goal will require a wide range of actions local government can take to encourage the development of a city that is not so dependent on cars. The City developed an incentive to support transportation mode shifts that reduces transportation impact fees for performance measures that are proven to reduce on-site trip generation, such as location on Whatcom Transportation Authority Go-Lines. Bellingham is currently certified as a silver-level “Bicycle Friendly Community” by the League of American Bicyclists. Status: Ongoing Goal: Reduce vehicle trips by 17% by 2022 and by 27% by 2036. Reaching the 2036 goal earlier may be necessary to meet the 2030 emissions target. Emissions Reduction: 2330 tons CO2e per year SAFE ROUTES TO SCHOOL City of Bellingham Public Works and Police Departments partners with Bellingham School District, Whatcom County Health Department, and everybodyBIKE to implement programs in local elementary and middle schools that use education, enforcement, and engineering improvements to increase the number of students walking and bicycling to school, with the goals of reducing vehicle trips and congestion and improving air quality. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Unknown Next Steps: In 2018, City staff will perform educationand enforcement at Shuksan Middle School and start Bellingham Bikes From dedicated bike commuters on the City’s freshly painted bike routes to thrill-seeking mountain bikers up on Galbraith Mountain, Bellingham’s bike culture thrives. The Hub Community Bike Shop is a non-profit organization that encourages transportation alter- natives and builds community around bikes. They take old, donated bikes and refurbish them to be sold back to the community, reducing waste and increasing the number of bikes on the streets. They also provide reusable parts and community shop space. Every spring, more than 30 organi- zations in Bellingham and Whatcom County work together to support Bike to Work and School Day with almost 30 “celebration stations” where bikers can stop for refreshment and suste- nance. The Hub’s Pancake Feed is a popular stop. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 159 page 92 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Transportation work on the Aldrich Road (Cordata Elementary School) Safe Routes to School grant project. The City of Bellingham Comprehensive Plan includes actions to: “Continue and expand Safe Routes to School programming, such as assemblies, bicycle rodeos and in-classroom safety education, to all schools in the Bellingham School District,” and “Encourage the Bellingham School District to partner with the City in funding Safe Route to School sidewalk and bicycle facility improvements.” LIMIT IDLING The 2007 Climate Protection Action Plan proposed working with regional partners to limit vehicle idling. With funding from the Northwest Clean Air Agency, RE Sources worked with 22 schools in Whatcom, Skagit, and Island counties to limit idling and reported preventing 1,380 tons of carbon dioxide emissions. RE Sources also created a tool kit for municipalities that focused on businesses in 2011. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Unknown Next Steps: The City will work with partners to assess additional anti- idling educational opportunities at the community level. PROMOTE BIOFUELS Switching from fossil fuels to agriculturally based fuels can reduce carbon pollution because biofuel emissions are part of the natural carbon cycle. However, recent concerns about indirect environmental impacts of biofuels on wild ecosystems, biodiversity, food prices, water consumption, and poor communities have dimmed enthusiasm for the carbon reduction benefits of biofuels.73 Reflecting these trends and a variety of other factors, biodiesel use in Bellingham has fallen. Renewable diesel is an emerging fuel chemically identical to petroleum diesel but made from renewable oils. This fuel is not available to retail customers at this time. Biodiesel and renewable diesel made from recycled oils such as tallow and fryer oil provide the greatest Figure 23. Electric vehicle charging station locations in Bellingham. (USDOE Alternative Fuels Data Center) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 160 page 93 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Transportation environmental benefit. Today, biodiesel is available at the Bakerview Yorky’s Market, Sammy’s Place on State Street, and the Shell Station on Meridian and Kellogg Road. Status: Incomplete Goal: 5% biodiesel or renewable diesel use in Bellingham by 2025. Emissions Reduction: 154 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: The City can lead by example by switching the City fleet to this new fuel, following the example of other cities. The City and community will explore options for other incentives to gas stations to offer fuels blended with biodiesel and ethanol (E85), and outreach to auto dealerships to encourage them to offer more vehicles compatible with greater use of biofuels. PROMOTE HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES In 2005, there were 168 hybrid vehicles registered in Bellingham. As of March 2017, there were 2,628—a more than 1450% increase to comprise 2% of all vehicles in Bellingham. Combined with 481 electric cars, this shift saved more than 516,000 gallons of gas or 5,057 tons of CO2e in 2017, which is equivalent to taking 969 passenger cars off the road for a year. In 2011, Bellingham mayor Dan Pike helped break ground in the Sehome Shopping Village for construction of the first electric vehicle (EV) DC fast- charging station on the West Coast Electric Highway, a network of such stations in Washington, Oregon, and California. Today, Bellingham has 11 public charging stations, including one fast charger and 23 total outlets. In March 2016, there were 481 electric vehicles registered in Bellingham, a 0.3% adoption rate. (This measure was combined with the Phase 1 Hybrid Vehicles measure from the 2007 plan). Status: Ongoing Goal: 40% EV adoption and 30% hybrid adoption by 2030. This far exceeds Bellingham’s estimated contributions to the Washington Electric Vehicle Action Plan goal of 50,000 EVs in the state by 2020 and sets up Bellingham to meet 2030 emissions targets. Emissions Reduction: 5,160 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Include promotion of hybrid vehicles in climate change education efforts. Create an educational electric vehicle page on the City website. Continue to partner with utilities and community stakeholders to promote electric vehicle adoption and infrastructure, including large employers and car dealers. Recognize businesses offering EV benefits. Assess feasibility of free electric vehicle charging for the public at City charging stations. Investigate if and how City employees can use city chargers. Standardize EV signage and consider pavement markings to help EV drivers find charging stations. Assess permitting needs and opportunities for incentives for installing EV infrastructure. Assess opportunities to include EV infrastructure in new developments. Consider reducing parking requirements for developers 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 161 page 94 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Transportation when charging stations are installed. Designate reserved preferential parking for EVs. Provide free parking to EVs at City buildings and metered spaces. Assess ways to incentivize charging stations at workplaces. Research feasibility of waiving City sales tax on electric vehicles. Join Washington Clean Cities Coalition. Transportation – Phase 3 Measures WHATCOM SMART TRIPS Whatcom Smart Trips is a unique community-wide vehicle trip reduction program that focuses on all trip purposes (not just commute trips.) Since the program started in June 2006, participants have walked, bicycled, shared rides and ridden the bus for more than 52 million miles and prevented over 21,000 tons of carbon dioxide from being emitted (Figure 24). Emissions Reduction: Included in Vehicle Mode Shift SSC NATURAL GAS TRUCKS In 2015, the City required SSC to convert their fleet of garbage trucks from diesel to CNG with the last contract revision and authorized the necessary rate increase to pay for the cost. Emissions Reduction: 2237 tons CO2e COMMUNITY COMMUTE TRIP REDUCTION Continue to work with Waatcom Council of Governments to administer the state-required Commute Trip Reduction program for large employers and encourage smaller employers to help both employees and customers make local trips by walking, biking, and riding transit or sharing rides (Bellingham Comprehensive Plan Policy T-18). Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Included in Vehicle Mode Shift Next Steps: Increase carpooling incentives— provide carpool-only spaces downtown, work with large shopping centers. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 162 page 95 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Green Building Green Building Residential/Commercial - Phase 2 PROMOTE GREEN BUILDING In 2010, the City of Bellingham’s Permit Center launched a “Bin Bump- Up” program to encourage and support green building projects by reducing building permit review time for certified green projects. A project that would typically be eligible for a 28-day review will be “bumped-up” to a seven- day review if it meets all applicable requirements. These projects are also eligible for one “integrated design” meeting with the City’s Green Project Review Team to identify potential code conflicts between the project’s concepts and City building codes. These incentives will be offered for new buildings and residences that achieve either a Building Industry Association of Whatcom County (BIA) Built Green 4- or 5-star standard or a U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) LEED Silver, Gold, or Platinum standard. Project registration with the BIA or the USGBC is required to be eligible and third party verification is required. Other equivalent green programs may be eligible as determined by the City’s Planning Director or Building Official. Status: Ongoing Goal from 2007 Plan: 50% of new residential, commercial, and industrial building is LEED certified or equivalent. Emissions Reduction: 596 tons CO2e per year Next Steps: Review and consider including more recent green building standards in this program and consider scaling incentives based on energy savings. Review the feasibility of making downtown multi-family tax credit dependent upon meeting green building standards. Residential/Commercial/Industrial - Phase 3 ADVANCED MATERIALS AND METHODS POLICIES The City and Sustainable Connections developed policies for a variety of green building techniques to help businesses and homeowners achieve LEED and BuiltGreen standards while saving money: • Roof-mounted Photovoltaic Solar Panels to produce local, clean energy. • Solar Water Heating Systems to lower energy use and costs. • Advanced Framing to reduce the amount of building materials used on a project while increasing the thermal efficiency of a home. • Vegetated Roofing to reduce stormwater runoff and cut energy use by insulating roofs while cleaning the air and reducing the urban “heat island” effect caused by heat absorption of pavement and black rooftops. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 163 page 96 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Green Building • Rainwater Harvesting to save water, reduce stormwater runoff, and save money on stormwater development charges through a 50% discount for qualifying projects. Rainwater Harvesting can also help avoid stormwater detention or mitigation requirements. • Composting Toilets and waterless urinals to cut energy and water use. Status: Ongoing Emissions reduction: Included above Next Steps: Research feasibility of updating policies and incentives to include more recent green building standards. Research policies to support advanced materials and methods in the industrial sector. Residential/Commercial/Industrial - Phase 4 2030 DISTRICT Cities across the country are forming 2030 Districts led by the private sector to focus efficiencies and efforts such as district energy, benchmarking, energy ratings, collective buying power, and green building standards. 2030 Districts commit to reducing building energy use, water consumption, and transportation emissions by 50% by 2030. This model could work well in Bellingham’s downtown and urban villages. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 164 page 97 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Waste Reduction Waste Reduction Residential, Commercial - Phase 1 Measures CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION RECYCLING According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, about 30 percent of all solid waste consists of construction and demolition waste.74 This presents a major opportunity to reduce waste by increasing recycling rates during construction and demolition. The RE Store sells used building and home improvement materials at prices up to 50% off of new items. In 2005 they diverted more than an estimated 875 tons of material from the landfill. In 2014, that number reached 1825 tons. Status: Incomplete Next Steps: Work with Whatcom County to assess feasibility of requiring recycling at all construction sites. Ensure that all City construction and demolition projects recycle waste and use recycled building materials. Emissions reduction: 4,122 tons CO2e FOOD PLUS! Sanitary Service Corporation (SSC) began offering FoodPlus! organic food waste recycling opportunities in 2004. The program has been made available to a wider and wider range of customers since its inception. In 2005, the program diverted about 1600 tons of food waste from the landfill. At this time, SSC does not provide data on the volume of composted waste. Goal: Unknown emissions reduction Next Steps: Consider measuring use. Increase usage of program Residential - Phase 2 Measures INCREASE RESIDENTIAL CURBSIDE RECYCLING RATE The 2007 Climate Protection Action Plan set a goal of a 35% curbside recycling rate. From 2009 to 2012 and in 2015, the residential recycling rate was 32%, up from 31% in 2005. Countywide, the percent of all waste diverted or recycled is around 46%. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 165 page 98 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Waste Reduction In 2008, Bellingham-based non-profit Sustainable Connections launched a “Toward Zero Waste” campaign as a local business challenge. The City, along with the Farmer’s Market, Western Washington University, Whatcom Community College, RE Sources, and SSC, partnered in this effort. 161 businesses are participating in Toward Zero Waste. Status: Incomplete Goal: Unknown emissions reduction Next Steps: Support County efforts outlined in Comprehensive Waste Plan for recycling and diversion. Commercial - Phase 3 Measures PLASTIC BAG BAN In 2011, City Council banned single- use plastic bags from retail stores in Bellingham in order to prevent litter, reduce solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions, preserve natural resources, and prevent harm to wildlife. Emissions reduction: Unknown The RE Store sells used building materials and offers other support such as salvage services. This sustainable and low cost alternative to demolition provides strip-out, and tear-down of building materials for reuse. By choosing to salvage rather than demolish, Bellingham residents conserve valuable natural resources, build a healthier local economy and reduce fuel costs and emissions. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 166 page 99 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Land Use URBAN VILLAGES The City of Bellingham is fulfilling the Comprehensive Plan goal of master-planning urban villages as part of a larger “centers and corridors” planning approach that links mixed-use centers of activity through vibrant, high-frequency transit corridors. The Urban Village designation encourages the creation of intensely developed mixed- use areas where infrastructure, transit, and other public facilities and services are available or can be provided (Bellingham Comprehensive Plan LU-12). As implementation of these urban villages progresses, planning work can begin on the transit corridors that connect them to each other and the surrounding community. The six planned urban villages are Downtown, Waterfront, Fairhaven, Fountain, Samish Way, and Old Town Districts. Barkley Village lacks a formal plan but it functions as an urban village in many ways. Other potential urban villages that have not yet been formalized with master plans include James Street, Cordata, Lakeway/Lincoln, and Birchwood/Northwest/Maplewood. New and updated urban village plans should consider sustainable development practices and the use of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development (LEED- ND) rating system, or similar system, to action the potential sustainability outcomes of the proposed plans (Bellingham Comprehensive Plan Policy LU-18 and LU-43). Status: Ongoing Next Steps: Continue effective incentives and develop new incentives where needed for the planned urban villages. These incentives should be targeted to areas where they have proven to be successful and/or where the greatest need has been identified. Incentives should be flexible to respond to opportunities and changing markets. (Comprehensive Plan Policy LU-15). HIGH DENSITY DEVELOPMENT The Bellingham Comprehensive Plan supports higher-density development with parks, monuments, schools, and other public amenities (Policy LU-6). The City will continue to implement and seek new, innovative tools to achieve a healthy mix of housing that is affordable to a wide range of incomes, including • Density bonuses; • Inclusionary zoning; • Cluster subdivisions that preserve open space, retain natural features and provide other public benefits; • The Infill Housing Toolkit, which includes small lot homes; townhomes and other housing forms; • Accessory dwelling units; Land Use 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 167 page 100 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Community Measures | Land Use • Adaptive re-use of existing structures; and • Purchase and transfer of development rights (TDR) programs; and • Public-private partnerships for shared parking facilities, wetland mitigation, and regional stormwater management. Status: Ongoing Emissions Reduction: Included in Mode Shift measure Next Steps: Review infill opportunities across different neighborhoods and consider policies to further encourage infill and higher density housing. Figure 24. City of Bellingham Urban Villages 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 168 page 101 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Appendix Figure 24. City of Bellingham Urban Villages Appendix: Emissions Inventory Methods Emissions inventories are calculated using a web-based application called ClearPath (www.icleiusa.org/ clearpath), which was developed by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and replaces the discontinued Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) software used in the 2007 Climate Action Plan. The City follows the Local Government Operations Protocol75 and the U.S. Community Protocol76 for accounting and reporting greenhouse gas emissions. Municipal Emissions Inventories Methods for greenhouse gas emissions inventories continue to be updated with new science and protocols. For this Climate Action Plan update, the City recalculated previous emissions inventories from the 2007 Climate Action Plan (which followed the 1996 Revised Interagency Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines) using the new standard IPCC 4th Assessment Report guidelines. This means that emissions calculations from 2000 and 2005 have changed slightly to reflect updated science, and to improve consistency between multi-year emissions comparisons. In this update the City also included nitrous oxide emissions and off-road vehicle emissions (like landscaping and construction equipment) in all inventory years, which were omitted in the 2007 Climate Action Plan. Previous emissions reductions target percentages have not changed but have been applied to the updated baseline emissions values. It is important to note the difficulty of calculating accurate greenhouse gas emissions given data collection challenges across multiple agencies and service providers, as well as other challenges. The emissions reported in this report should be taken as estimates meant to show trends over time rather than exact calculations. For solid waste emissions, inventory protocol has changed since the first Climate Action Plan such that carbon sequestration in landfills is no longer included. This results in a new source of emissions that were not included in past inventories. Solid waste emissions were not included in the baseline inventory or the initial emissions reductions goals, so they will be omitted from 2012 emissions reductions goal assessment. However, they are included in total 2012 and 2015 emissions and will be included in future emissions reductions targets. Unlike other inventoried emissions that are emitted during the inventory year, solid waste emissions of carbon dioxide and methane will be emitted as waste decomposes over time. The methane that these landfills recover for energy use is subtracted from the emissions estimates. The City lacks data on City government waste generation and so needs to survey waste generation and composition to improve these estimates. For the fleet inventory, City departments have changed, as have 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 169 page 102 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Appendix data tracking procedures, making it difficult to accurately compare emissions between departments across years. Similarly, past vehicle-specific data is difficult to verify so methane and nitrous oxide emissions, which are calculated from miles traveled in different vehicle types, represent an estimate. This is not a concern since these trace gases are such a small percentage of total fleet emissions (~1.3% for 2012). However, gross emissions for each year should be more complete and accurate than previous inventories. For emissions from electricity use, the City uses electricity use data and emissions factors provided by Puget Sound Energy. Natural gas use data is provided by Cascade Natural Gas. For wastewater emissions, this report focuses on natural gas and electricity emissions over which the City has the most control. There are additional nitrous oxide emissions associated with the decomposition of organic waste in Bellingham Bay that are not reported here. Municipal Emissions Forecast Growth rates were applied to the 2015 emissions inventory to forecast “business-as-usual” emissions to 2030. Buildings and Facilities, Employee Commute, and Solid Waste emissions were forecasted to grow based on projected FTE (full time equivalent) positions at the City of Bellingham. Streetlight electricity use was forecasted based on planned projects. Vehicle Fleets emissions were forecasted based on projected FTE positions and an average projected increase in fuel efficiency. Water and Wastewater Treatment emissions were forecasted based on the high population growth scenario adopted by the City (Berk 2013). Carbon intensity of grid electricity was projected to decrease with state Renewable Portfolio Standards to 2020; after that, U.S. Energy Information Administration projections for this region were used to estimate further reductions. Community Emissions Inventories Community transportation emissions were estimated using the Whatcom Council of Governments (WCOG) Regional Travel Demand Model, which began in 2008. This model estimates higher vehicles miles traveled (VMT) compared to the previously used Washington Department of Transportation Highway Performance Monitoring System, so the WCOG model results were backcast to 2000 and 2005, which raised baseline transportation emissions from the 2007 Climate Action Plan. These estimates are likely more accurate than past estimates and also allow more accurate comparisons between inventory years going forward. Community natural gas use data for Residential, Commercial, and Industrial sectors is provided by 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 170 page 103 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update Appendix Appendix Cascade Natural Gas. CNG’s accounting of industrial natural gas use changed between inventory years 2005 and 2012 such that natural gas transported by CNG’s pipes but not purchased directly from CNG is now included. This is likely a more accurate representation of natural gas used within Bellingham city limits. For this reason, 2012 industrial natural gas use data was backcast to 2005 and 2000, raising baseline emissions from the 2007 Climate Action Plan, but allowing for more accurate comparison between years going forward. Propane use appears to be minimal within city limits so is excluded from emissions inventories. Community electricity data for Residential, Commercial, and Industrial sectors is provided by Puget Sound Energy. Community solid waste data for Residential and Commercial (which includes multifamily Residential, Commercial, and Industrial) sectors is provided by Sanitary Service Company for 2012, 2015, and going forward. However, recycling and composting data is not provided. Waste characterization data is from Whatcom County. Electricity emissions are included in the municipal forecast despite being “offset” by the City’s purchase of renewable energy credits (which will be replaced by PSE’s Green Direct Program in 2019). This is because the City wants to continue to track its electricity emissions, both to understand the actual amount of emissions generated by City operations, and to track energy efficiency progress. Community Emissions Forecast Growth rates were applied to the 2015 emissions inventory to forecast “business-as-usual” emissions to 2030. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy use was forecasted using U.S. Energy Information Administration projections of electricity and natural gas demand for each sector in this region. Transportation emissions were forecasted based on a VMT growth rate derived from the Whatcom Council of Governments Regional Travel Demand Model and an average projected increase in fuel efficiency. Solid Waste was assumed to increase at the high population growth rate adopted by the City (Berk 2013). Carbon intensity of grid electricity was projected to decrease with state Renewable Portfolio Standards to 2020; after that, U.S. Energy Information Administration projections for this regions were used to estimate further reductions. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 171 page 104 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update References References 1. Blackburn, V. January 26, 2016. Mayor declares 2016 “Energy Year” in the City of Bellingham. City of Bell- ingham. Retrieved from: https://www. cob.org/news/Pages/features/Mayor-de- clares-2016-Energy-Year.aspx 2. Lindsey, Rebecca. (2016, January 19) No surprise, 2015 sets new global tem- perature record. Climate.gov. Retrieved from: http://1.usa.gov/1nyftHP 3. Blunden, J. and D. S. Arndt, Eds. (2015) State of the Climate in 2014. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96 (7), S1– S267. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1Lm- ngQC 4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2017, January 18) NASA, NOAA Data Show 2016 Warm- est Year on Record Globally. Retrieved from https://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/ news/20170118 5. Patel, J.K. (2017, January 18) How 2016 Became Earth’s Hottest Year on Record. https://www.nytimeAs.com/inter- active/2017/01/18/science/earth/2016-hottest- year-on-record.html 6. Pachauri, R. K., Allen, M. R., Barros, V. R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., et al. (2014). Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change. Re- trieved from: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ ar5/syr/ 7. Holthaus, Eric. (2015, July 20) Earth’s Most Famous Climate Scientist Issues Bombshell Sea Level Warning. Slate Magazine. Retrieved from: http://slate. me/1Mgxi6H 8. Horton, B.P., Rahmstorf, S., Engel- hart, S.E. and Kemp, A.C. (2014) Expert assessment of sea-level rise by AD 2100 and AD 2300. Quaternary Science Reviews, 84, pp.1-6. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1fyP7L7 9. Tollefson, Jeff. (2016, March 30) Ant- arctic model raises prospect of unstop- pable ice collapse. Nature. March 30, 2016. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1opbX- iD 10. Christensen, E. (2016, February 9) Sea Level Rise Update 2016. City of Olympia, Washington. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 172 page 105 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update References References 11. Hauer, M.E., Evans, J.M. and Mish- ra, D.R., 2016. Millions projected to be at risk from sea-level rise in the conti- nental United States. Nature Climate Change. Retrieved from: http://bit. ly/1MlfyJO 12. Di Liberto, T. (2017, January 23) Scientists link toxic algal blooms along U.S. West Coast to warm waters in the Pacific. Retrieved from: https://www. climate.gov/news-features/event-tracker/ scientists-ink-toxic-algal-blooms-along-us- west-coast-warm-waters 13. Washington Department of Natu- ral Resources Wildland Fire Summary 2015. Retrieved from: http://file.dnr. wa.gov/publications/em_wildfire_summa- ry_2015.pdf 14. Mittendorf, R. (2016, August 19) Record-breaking Whatcom County heat to continue through Saturday. Retrieved from: http://www.bellingham- herald.com/news/local/article96651997.html 15. Bellingham breaks heat record for fourth day in a row. (2016, April 20) Retrieved from: http://www.bellingham- herald.com/news/local/article72901442.html 16. Mote, P. W. et al. (2013) Climate: Variability and Change in the Past and the Future. Chapter 2, 25-40, in M.M. Dalton, P.W. Mote, and A.K. Snover (eds.) Climate Change in the North- west: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities, Washing- ton D.C.: Island Press. Retrieved from: https://cig.uw.edu/learn/climate-change/ 17. University of Washington Climate Impacts Group. (2017) Retrieved from: https://cig.uw.edu/learn/climate-change 18. Mote, P. W. et al. (2013) Climate: Variability and Change in the Past and the Future. Chapter 2, 25-40, in M.M. Dalton, P.W. 19. Boos, R. and A. Ahearn. (2015, July 19). How will the Pacific Northwest change when its glaciers are gone? Liv- ing on Earth. Public Radio Internation- al. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1HMo7Wl 20. Waldman, S. (2017, April 5) Earth’s CO2 Could Spike to a Level Not Seen Since the Dinosaurs. E&E News. Re- trieved from: https://www.scientificameri- can.com/article/earths-CO2-could-spike-to- a-level- not-seen-since-the-dinosaurs 21. Ibid 22. Dutton, A., et al. (2015) Sea-level rise due to polar ice-sheet mass loss during past warm periods. Science 349.6244 (2015): aaa4019. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1JZu59k 23. Waldman, S. (2017, April 5) Earth’s CO2 Could Spike to a Level Not Seen Since the Dinosaurs. E&E News. Re- trieved from: https://www.scientificameri- can.com/article/earths-CO2-could-spike-to- a-level- not-seen-since-the-dinosaurs 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 173 page 106 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update References 24. Hansen, J., Sato, M., Kharecha, P., Beerling, D., Berner, R., Masson-Del- motte, V., ... & Zachos, J. C. (2008). Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim?. Open Atmos. Sci. J. (2008), vol. 2, pp. 217-231. 25. Pachauri, R. K., Allen, M. R., Bar- ros, V. R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., et al. (2014). Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovern- mental Panel on Climate Change. Re- trieved from: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ ar5/syr/ 26. Chan, F., Boehm, A.B., Barth, J.A., Chornesky, E.A., Dickson, A.G., Feely, R.A., Hales, B., Hill, T.M., Hofmann, G., Ianson, D., Klinger, T., Largier, J., Newton, J., Pedersen, T.F., Somero, G.N., Sutula, M., Wakefield, W.W., Waldbusser, G.G., Weisberg, S.B., and Whiteman, E.A. (2016) The West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel: Major Findings, Recom- mendations, and Actions. California Ocean Science Trust, Oakland, Califor- nia, USA. April 2016. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1SwUZHm 27. Mote, P. W. et al. (2013) Climate: Variability and Change in the Past and the Future. Chapter 2, 25-40, in M.M. Dalton, P.W. Mote, and A.K. Snover (eds.) Climate Change in the North- west: Implications for Our Landscapes, Waters, and Communities, Washing- ton D.C.: Island Press. Retrieved from: https://cig.uw.edu/learn/climate-change/ 28. Hertsgaard, M. (2015, July 19) Cli- mate Seer James Hansen Issues His Direst Forecast Yet. The Daily Beast. Retrieved from: http://thebea.st/1UDSaKj 29. Adler, B. (2015, December 12) Here’s what you need to know about the new Paris climate agreement. Grist. Re- trieved from: http://bit.ly/1Y9HmGp 30. Sustainable Energy in America Factbook. (2016) Business Council for Sustainable Energy. Retrieved from: http://www.bcse.org/sustainableenergyfact- book/ 31. Ibid. 32. Pyper, J. (2017, February 8) The ‘New Normal’ in America: Renewables Boom, Emissions Plunge and Consum- ers Save More Than Ever. Greentech Media. Retrieved from: https://www. greentechmedia.com/articles/read/us-con- sumers-are-spending-less-on-energy-as- clean-energy-booms-and-the-ec 33. Sustainable Energy in America Factbook. (2016) Business Council for Sustainable Energy. Retrieved from: http://www.bcse.org/sustainableenergyfact- book/ 34. The White House. (2015) President Obama’s Climate Action Plan: 2nd An- niversary Progress Report. June 2015. (https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ the-record/climate) 35. The White House. (2015, August 30) Fact Sheet: President Obama to Announce Historic Carbon Pollu- tion Standards for Power Plants. Re- trieved from: https://obamawhitehouse. archives.gov/the-press-office/2015/08/03/ fact-sheet-president-obama-announce-his- toric-carbon-pollution-standards 36. Ibid. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 174 page 107 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update References References 37. Kolbert, E. (2017, April 12) Earth Day in the Age of Trump. The New Yorker. Retrieved from: http://www.newyorker. com/news/daily-comment/earth-day-in-the- age-of-trump 38. Clean Power Plan Factsheet. (2016) Environmental Protection Agency. Re- trieved from: https://www.epa.gov/clean- powerplan/fact-sheet-clean-power-plan- numbers (This website has been replaced by the Trump Administration). 39. The White House. (2017) Presiden- tial Executive Order on Promoting Energy Independence and Economic Growth. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/2n- f052u 40. Davenport, C. and A. Rubin. (2017, March 28) Trump Signs Executive Or- der Unwinding Obama Climate Poli- cies. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://nyti.ms/2o36oKN 41. Davenport, C. (2015, November 6) Citing Climate Change, Obama Rejects Construction of Keystone XL Oil Pipe- line. The New York Times. Nov. 6, 2015. Retrieved from: http://nyti.ms/1LVDbVP) 42. Washington State Governor’s Of- fice. (2017) Energy and Environment website. Retrieved from: http://www. governor.wa.gov/issues/issues/ener- gy-environment 43. Brunner, J. and H. Bernton. (2015, July 29) Inslee: I’ll use my authority to impose cap on emissions. The Seat- tle Times. Retrieved from: http://www. seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/inslee- acts-to-cap-carbon-emissions/ 44. Le, P. (2015, September 21) State moves to limit greenhouse gases. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from: http:// www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/ state-moves-to-limit-greenhouse-gases/ 45. Washington State House of Repre- sentatives. (2017) House Bill 1144. Re- trieved from: http://lawfilesext.leg.wa.gov/ biennium/2017-18/Pdf/Bill%20Reports/ House/1144%20HBR%20ENVI%2017.pdf 46. Bernard, S. (2016, July 12) Puget Sound Energy to Retire Some Coal- Fired Power. Seattle Weekly. Retrieved from: http://www.seattleweekly.com/news/ puget-sound-energy-to-retire-some-coal- fired-power/ 47. Lavelle, Marianne. (2016, Novem- ber 9) Washington State Voters Re- ject Nation’s First Carbon Tax. Inside Climate News. Retrieved from: https:// insideclimatenews.org/news/09112016/ washington-state-carbon-tax-i-732-ballot- measure 48. Bellingham City Council. (2005) Resolution 2005-08 49. Bellingham City Council. (2007) Resolution 2007-10 50. City of Bellingham. (2016) Munic- ipal Facilities Energy Conservation Project website Retrieved from: http:// bit.ly/1IwtDjh 51. City of Bellingham Ordinance 2011-04-019. (2011) Retrieved from: http://www.codepublishing.com/WA/Bell- ingham/?BellinghamOT/bellinghamOT876. html&?f 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 175 page 108 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update References 52. Johnson Controls. (2013) Post Installation Measurement and Veri- fication Report. Prepared for City of Bellingham. 53. Bellingham City Council (2011, No- vember 7) Agenda Bill number 19371. 54. Wash. City Moves to Higher Bio- diesel Blend. (2015, October 19) Green Fleet. Retrieved from: http://www.green- fleetmagazine.com/news/story/2015/10/ wash-city-moves-to-higher-biodiesel- blend.aspx 55. National Research Council. (2011) Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy. National Acade- my of Sciences. Retrieved from: http:// bit.ly/1Rb5Zvx 56. Lavender, M. (2015) The Corn Etha- nol Bridge is Crumbling. Environmen- tal Working Group. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1GTlwc9 57. City of Bellingham. (2016) Belling- ham Energy Prize website. Retrieved from: www.cob.org/services/environment/ climate/energy-prize.aspx 58. City of Bellingham. (2016) Climate Protection Program website. Retrieved from: www.cob.org/services/environment/ climate/index.aspx 59. Sustainable Connections. (2013, March 1) Community Energy Chal- lenge hits targets, creates jobs. Re- trieved from: http://bit.ly/1WGPtFP 60. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (The Whatcom Energy Chal- lenge. Retrieved from: http://1.usa. gov/1zdHSGQ 61. Dolan, T. (2012) Nonprofit Energy Savers Thrive in Washington State. Home Energy. Retrieved from: http://bit. ly/1U6E9VB 62. Building Performance Center web site (http://bit.ly/249fZvO) 63. Gardner, M. (2016) City of Belling- ham Georgetown University Energy Prize Year End Review 2016. 64. Gardner, M. (2016) City of Belling- ham Georgetown University Energy Prize Year End Review 2016. 65. Gardner, M. (2016) City of Belling- ham Georgetown University Energy Prize Year End Review 2016. 66. Gardner, M. (2016) City of Belling- ham Georgetown University Energy Prize Year End Review 2016. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 176 page 109 City of Bellingham Climate Protection Action Plan | 2018 Update References References 67. FVB Energy. (2014, April) Belling- ham Waterfront Utility Master Plan District Infrastructure Assessment, Preliminary Finding Report. 68. Tinner, J. (2009, September 4) Roof Mounted Photo-Voltaic Solar Panels for One and Two Family Dwellings. City of Bellingham Policy. 69. City of Bellingham. (undated) Ad- vanced Methods and Materials, Solar Water Heating Systems. 70.Gardner, M. (2016) City of Belling- ham Georgetown University Energy Prize Year End Review 2016. 71. FVB Energy. (2014, April) Belling- ham Waterfront Utility Master Plan District Infrastructure Assessment, Preliminary Finding Report. 72. USEPA Greenhouse Gas Equivalen- cies Calculator (http://1.usa.gov/1e2viuH) 73. Kiger, P. J. (2014) Milestone IPCC Climate Report Shifts on Biofuels. National Geographic Energy Blog. Re- trieved from: http://bit.ly/1i08i0C 74. Whatcom County. (2016) 2016 Whatcom County Comprehensive Sol- id and Hazardous Waste Management Plan. Retrieved from: http://whatcom- county.us/674/Solid-Waste-Management 75. International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), et al. (2010) Local Government Operations Protocol for the quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions inventories. Version 1.1. May 2010. ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability USA. 76. International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). (2013). U.S. Community Protocol for Accounting and Reporting of Green- house Gas Emissions. Version 1.1. July 2013. ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability USA. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 177 For additional information please visit www.cob.org/climate or contact City of Bellingham Public Works Natural Resources at 360-778-7800 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 178 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 1 of 54   Climate Action Plan Port Townsend/Jefferson County, Washington 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 179 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 2 of 54 City of Port Townsend & Jefferson County 2011 Climate Action Plan Board of County Commissioners John Austin, Phil Johnson, David Sullivan City Council Michelle Sandoval George Randels David King Catharine Robinson Laurie Medlicott Kris Nelson Mark Welch Climate Action Committee Kees Kolff, Chair Faith-Based John Austin Jefferson County BoCC Barney Burke Jefferson PUD No. 1 Larry Crockett Port of Port Townsend Richard Dandridge Citizen-At-Large Denise Pranger Citizen-At-Large (forestry) Pete Raab Building Industry Representative Deb Stinson Citizen-At-Large Ayla Taylor Student Alternate Scott Walker Non-Motorized Transportation Mark Welch Port Townsend City Council Stanley Willard Citizen-At-Large Annie Young Port Townsend High School Student 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 180 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 3 of 54 Climate Action Staff Judy Surber, City of Port Townsend Planning Manager Zoe Ann Lamp, Jefferson County Associate Planner/ DRD Lead An electronic version of this document is available at http://www.co.jefferson.wa.us/commdevelopment/ClimateChange.htm   Acknowledgements Climate Action Committee - Former members Taylor Beard Port Townsend High School Student Tim Behrenfeld Education Nora Burnfield Port Townsend High School Student Josh Bryant Port Townsend High School Student Jim Fritz Olympic Stewardship Foundation Barbara Nightingale Citizen-At-Large (marine) Tom Opstad Education (alternate) Kristin Marshall Port Townsend Paper Mike Pollack Jefferson Transit Dana Roberts Jefferson PUD No. 1 David Turissini Jefferson Transit The City of Port Townsend and Jefferson County and Climate Action Committee members wish to thank the following individuals for their contribution in developing this Climate Action Plan. Al Cairns, Jefferson County Soild Waste Kathyrn Lamka of Meeting Works – for her facilitation of the prioritization exercise Karen Barrows – former Jefferson County Associate Planner Special mention to the following individuals: Joanna Loehr, who spearheaded the Baseline Emissions Inventory for 2005 with her husband Thomas, who died Aug. 20, 2010 Deb Stinson for her tireless editing work and expert software skills 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 181 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 4 of 54 Table of Contents Executive Summary I. Introduction A. General Intro B. How Was the Plan Created? C. What’s Next? II. The Challenge of Climate Change A. The Problem B. The Benefits of an Aggressive Response III. Our Goal – Think Globally, Act Locally References federal and state goals as well IV. Summary of Inventory of Energy Usage and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions V. The Plan: Objectives and Actions A. Reducing Government Emissions - Leading By Example General Policies 26 discrete municipal actions 1. Buildings and Energy 2. Urban Form and Transportation 3. Consumption and Solid Waste B. Encouraging Community-wide Reductions With18 specific measures for the community to consider VI. Transportation and Land Use Policies – For Further Consideration C. Rural Resource Management to enhance the carbon sequestering potential of the County’s forests, farms and open spaces D. Urban Form and Transportation to locate and move both people and goods in a carbon-efficient manner and provide regional tools for compact, livable communities of mixed uses. VII. Monitoring Systems and Adaptive Management VIII. Glossary of Terms 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 182 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 5 of 54 Appendices Appendix A: Joint Resolution County 44-07 City 07-022 to commit to addressing energy use and climate change Appendix B: Joint Resolution of the Board of County Commissioners County Resolution No 02-08 and the Port Townsend City Council City Resolution No 08-001 Providing Composition Terms of Office And Procedural Rules for the Climate Action Committee Appendix C: Worksheets – CO2e Forecasts and Targets Appendix D: Potential Funding Sources Appendix E: Worksheets - Proposed Actions for Government Operations Appendix F: Portland Climate Action Now’s, Climate-friendly Actions At Home & For your Business Appendix G: CAC List of Prioritized Ideas for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Measures (Draft February 25, 2009) Appendix H: Letter Extending the Climate Action Committee Figures Figure 1. ICLEI Climate Action Plan 5-Milestone Process Figure 2. Procedural Flowchart Figure 3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Jefferson County – Base Year, Backcasts, Forecasts and Reduction Targets Figure 4. Annual Per Capita Emissions Targets Compared to Population Growth Over Time Figure 5. Community-wide CO2e Emissions in 2005 Figure 6. Port Townsend City Operations - CO2e Emissions in 2005 Figure 7. Jefferson County Operations – CO2e Emissions in 2005 Figure 8. CO2e Projections and Targets for City & County Operations contrasted against projected population growth. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 183 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 6 of 54 Tables Table 1 Baseline Conditions and Emissions Targets Table 2 Sample of Pledges Under the Copenhagen Accord Table 3 Baseline Conditions and Emissions Targets Table 4 Community-Wide and Government Subset Emissions 2005 Table 5 2005 Carbon Dioxide Emissions per capita Table 6 2020 Objectives for City and County Operations Table 7 Actions for Reducing Emissions from City Government Operations Table 8 Actions for Reducing Emissions from County Government Operations Table 9 Objectives & Recommended Actions for Community-wide Emissions Reductions 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 184 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 7 of 54 Letter from the Mayor and County Commissioner This Climate Action Plan was inspired by a grass-roots citizen effort and we appreciate the many hours of research, interviews, meetings, and writings by our citizen volunteers. It is clearly time for an organized approach to addressing global climate change, and by adopting this Plan we commit ourselves to the patience, organization and leadership necessary for its implementation. Special thanks are due to Thomas and Joanna Loehr who provided inspiration and an initial push to get the project started. More and more cities and counties across the country are taking advantage of opportunities created by addressing global warming now, rather than later. A year ago the city of Seattle commissioned a study to show how they could become carbon neutral by the year 2050. The preliminary report is no surprise - be more energy efficient in buildings, reduce the use of gasoline cars, consume less and recycle more. Our own Port Townsend/Jefferson County Climate Action Plan echoes those ideas. Many of the specific measures listed for our city and county governments are also appropriate for businesses and individual citizens. Energy efficiency efforts in homes, stores and offices can save money. Walking, biking and riding our bus system can improve health and reduce traffic. Buying local food, products and services helps support local entrepreneurs and keeps profits in the community. As an added bonus, all of these efforts reduce our carbon footprint. We are aware that our city and county represent a small fraction of this earth’s surface and population. Our contribution to global climate change is small, but we recognize our responsibility as global citizens to do what we can to protect this fragile ecosystem now and for those who follow. Many of us in Jefferson County are already taking action to reduce our carbon emissions, save money, and support the local economy, but we can and must do more. This plan offers many additional ideas for us to consider, individually and collectively. Working together we can improve the vitality of this community and leave it an even better place for future generations. Michelle Sandoval John Austin Mayor County Commissioner  12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 185 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 8 of 54 Executive Summary A near total consensus of the world’s leading climate scientists has concluded that carbon-based fossil fuel emissions from human activity are destabilizing the Earth’s climate, making it the most significant challenge for the future of our planet and our community. Average global temperatures and sea levels are already rising, and further climate changes will have far reaching effects on public health, local economies, food production, water supplies, power production, and habitability for many of Earth’s life forms. Reducing carbon emissions is a global challenge that must be met by all of us, locally and beyond. Much of the heavy work must take place at the federal and state level through alternative transportation investments, progressive energy policies, appropriate utility regulations, wise public lands use patterns, and stronger building codes. At the local level, we must also do our part, and both city and county governments must not only lead by example, but must also pursue policies that help our community reduce our carbon emissions. This Climate Action Plan is a product of the Climate Action Committee (CAC), which was appointed by the Port Townsend City Council and Jefferson County Commissioners in 2007. The council and commission set a goal of reducing county-wide carbon-based emissions to 80% lower than 1990 levels by the year 2050. This document begins to address the immense challenge required to attain that goal. The CAC ultimately decided on a phased approach to reach our goal. This plan is only phase one. It addresses specifically what the City and County governments can do to lead by example while recognizing that funding and resources are limited. It also recommends measures that the community should consider, as well as outreach, education, and partnership opportunities. Finally, it outlines land use and transportation policies that the City and County should refer to their respective planning commissions for further consideration. To produce this plan the committee first studied the sources and amount of carbon-based emissions in 2005. This was the year for which good data was available to develop a baseline and then be able to “backcast” an estimate for 1990 and forecast to 2050 with our projected population increase and “business as usual”. Here in Jefferson County, stationary emission sources like buildings and industry contribute 61% and the transportation sector contributes 39% to our emissions. The estimate for 1990 was slightly more than half a 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 186 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 9 of 54 million tons of CO2 equivalent emissions, and the forecast with “business as usual” for 2050 was twice that amount of emissions, or just over one million tons per year. To set the community on course for the ultimate 2050 goal of an 80% reduction, interim targets were adopted. Due to energy efficiency measures implemented during the past 20 years, mostly at the local paper mill, our community-wide CO2 equivalent emissions are estimated to have gone up only slightly from 1990 to 2005, the baseline year for which we gathered data. In addition we assumed that due to ongoing efficiencies there has been no significant increase between 2005 and 2012. The targets for 2020 and 2030 were arbitrarily set with a straight- line reduction from 2012 to the goal of an 80% reduction by 2050, knowing that this is not the pattern in which emissions are likely to be reduced. With broad community and government staff input, the committee then compiled a set of potential measures and implementation steps to address each significant source. The plan includes a beginning list of specific actions to be taken by local county and city governments so that they can do their part. It also includes numerous action ideas for the community at large to consider. The interim targets and ultimate goal of an 80% reduction in emissions may not apply to every sector, every building, every business or every individual. Instead, a reasoned approach needs to be applied that considers many factors, especially cost effectiveness. A case in point is the Government Sector, which produces less than 1% of the emissions in our county. Some of these are generated by essential services like the fire departments, police and sheriff departments, and water and sewer utilities, where emissions reductions may be very costly or unwise. It may be more cost effective to reduce emissions in the community rather than in the government sector. Some government investments could significantly reduce overall community emissions for example, limited resources may yield greater reductions in emissions in helping homeowners make private homes more energy efficient than in further retrofitting historic government buildings. In some situations, the most cost effective answer might even yield higher government sector emissions. Another low hanging fruit would be to encourage a shift in transportation mode away from motor vehicle use and toward increased walking, bicycling and transit use. This could be realized by implementing a number of strategies including: a significant investment for expanded Jefferson Transit service; greater investment in walking and biking facilities; a reduction, maximum cap, or elimination of motor vehicle parking requirements; and instituting parking fees in the 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 187 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 10 of 54 commercial centers. These steps would result in a modest increase in Jefferson Transit’s emissions but could yield an immense reduction in overall community emissions. The Government Sector must play a leadership role in continuing to make this challenge a high priority and should do what it reasonably can to reduce its own emissions. This plan will guide future efforts by the community and provide an innovative framework for the transition to a less carbon-based future. Irrespective of climate change issues, fossil fuels are a finite and costly resource and the steps taken to reduce carbon emissions will lead to a more stable, prosperous and healthy community. Implementing the plan will strengthen our economy, create local jobs, improve social equity, improve public and individual health, reduce our exposure to fluctuations in energy price and energy availability, improve air and water quality, and save money. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 188 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 11 of 54 I. Introduction A. General Intro In the fall of 2007, Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend made a joint commitment to achieve a community-wide standard of cutting green house gas emissions1 to levels 80% lower than 1990 levels by the year 2050 (Appendix A, County Resolution No. 44-07; City Resolution No. 07-022). To set the community on course for the ultimate 2050 goal, interim targets were adopted as shown in the table below. Due to energy efficiency measures implemented during the past 20 years, mostly at the local paper mill, our community-wide CO2 equivalent emissions are estimated to have gone up only slightly from 1990 to 2005, the baseline year for which we gathered data. In addition we assumed that due to ongoing efficiencies there has been no significant increase between 2005 and 2012. The targets for 2020 and 2030 were arbitrarily set with a straight-line reduction from 2012 to the goal of an 80% by 2050, knowing that this is not the way in which emissions are likely to be reduced. Table 1 - Baseline Conditions and Emissions Targets Year Percent in relation to 1990 levels Emissions in Tons of CO2eq 1990 (backcast) 100% 522,868 2005 (data base) 3% higher 536,713 2012 (target) 3% higher 536,713 2020 (target) 15% lower 445,737 2030 (target) 37% lower 332,016 2050 (goal) 80% lower 104,574 (For additional details see Section II, Our Goal In our Community, page 18*). This Jefferson County/Port Townsend Climate Action Plan may at first appear overwhelming, unrealistic, politically infeasible, impossibly expensive and/or absolutely unnecessary. Indeed, these would all be true if the plan were intended for immediate implementation with only local funding and resources and without significant policy changes and additional support from state and federal governments. That is NOT how this plan is meant to work. The plan proposes ambitious carbon-reduction efforts that promise to benefit the region’s long-term economic, social and environmental prosperity while we lower our greenhouse gas emissions. By adopting this climate action plan, the City and County are not obligated to implement all the policies described herein. Rather, the activities listed 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 189 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 12 of 54 are intended as a menu of ideas from which can be selected over time the specific actions that are affordable, feasible, and appropriate for our community. Measures can be phased in as funding and resources become available. Port Townsend and Jefferson County governments have already taken many steps towards trying to reduce energy use and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions. They range from buying and using electric and hybrid vehicles to building a LEED Silver certified City Hall annex. We must be ready with a comprehensive, long-term plan in order to take advantage of funding and other opportunities as they arise. Additional strategies will likely be developed over time further to meet the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming and climate disruption. Other government entities in the Pacific Northwest, like the state of Washington, King and Skagit Counties, Tacoma, Seattle and City of Portland-Multnomah County are also responding to the challenge with climate action plans. Two of the plans, the Skagit County Plan and the Portland-Multnomah Plan, proved to be especially valuable models in the drafting of this plan. B. How Was the Plan Created? The Jefferson County- City of Port Townsend Climate Action Plan is the culmination of a multi-year process, various stakeholders were represented on the committee (Appendix B) and numerous public meetings were held including two separate series of open houses. Launched in the Fall of 2007 by the City and County’s joint commitment to reduce carbon emissions1, the process to develop the Climate Action Plan followed the 5-Milestone process developed by ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability (www.iclei-usa.org): 1 The City and County committed to reduce community-wide carbon emissions1 by 80% from the 1990 level by the year 2050 (County Resolution No. 44-07; City Resolution No. 07-022). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 190 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 13 of 54 Milestone One - Conduct a baseline emissions inventory - was completed by the Climate Protection Task Force, a motivated group of citizen activists (Appendix C). Working in collaboration with City and County staff and with technical support from ICLEI the task force compiled the 2005 emissions inventory for both community-wide and municipal operations. The inventory was adopted by City Council and the Board of County Commissioners (BOCC) on January 12, 2009 (City Resolution 09-022 and County Resolution 06-09). A copy of the complete inventory is available for public inspection at the City and County planning departments and is posted on the County website at http://www.co.jefferson.wa.us/commdevelopment/ClimateChange.htm The Climate Action Committee (CAC), appointed by the Council and BoCC, continued to build on the momentum initiated by the task force. Per the adopted scope of work, the CAC was tasked with establishing interim targets (Milestone 2) and developing a Climate Action Plan (Milestone 3). This Action Plan provides guidance on implementation (Milestone 4) and outlines a monitoring program (Milestone 5). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 191 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 14 of 54 More detailed guidance was provided in the Climate Action Committee Workplan2. CAC members completed the following steps: • Develop Initial List of Potential Measures to Reduce Emissions – The committee brainstormed ideas and borrowed ideas from numerous sources including but not limited to: ICLEI Milestone guide, State CAT report, Natural Capitalism Solutions Climate Protection Manual for Cities, and models from other jurisdictions. In crafting the list of potential measures, the Committee was directed by the adopted resolution, to apply the following hierarchical approach: Conservation/Efficiency Measures Voluntary/Incentive based interventions Regulatory controls • Identified Existing Measures – CAC members interviewed various community leaders (including but not limited to US Navy, City and County Department Heads, Port Townsend Paper Mill, etc. ) to identify existing measures. Where feasible, emissions savings were estimated. • Conduct a Series of three Open Houses - In October 2008, three open houses were conducted in Port Townsend, Brinnon, and Chimacum to inform the public of the adopted goal and solicit input on potential measures. • Conduct Backcasting and Forecasting of GHG Emissions and Proposed Interim Targets for Reductions. • Solicit Input on Potential Measures from State Departments of Commerce and Ecology as well as ICLEI support staff. • Refine the List of Potential Measures – CAC members narrowed the list of potential measures to those that seemed the most promising given various factors including potential benefit/emissions reductions, cost, and public perception. The committee was aided by Kathryn Lamka and the MeetingWorks software. A software tool, Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA) designed by ICLEI was then used to compare the relative benefits and help identify those most likely to be successful. CAPPA includes a customizable and expandable library of more than 110 distinct emissions reduction strategies for local governments. Its calculation functions are based on real-world data from other U.S. communities and a variety of expert sources. 2 County Resolution No 02-08; City Resolution No 00-081 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 192 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 15 of 54 • Conduct Series of Open Houses - A Public Discussion Document dated June 9, 2009, was vetted by BOCC and City Council on June 17, 2009. This document was then presented at a series of open house events (Port Townsend, Brinnon, and Chimacum) which included informational displays, a slideshow lecture, and an audience participation activity. • Compile and Review the Draft Climate Action Plan over a series of noticed public meetings. Identifying Identifying Potential MeasuresPotential Measures Public Input October 2008 Summer 2009 Meeting Works Research guidance documents, model plans Climate Action Committee Brainstorming Select most likely candidates Complete data sheets CAPPA SoftwareCAPPA Software 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 193 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 16 of 54 C. What’s Next? With adoption of the 2011 Climate Action Plan, the City and County have taken a substantial step forward in meeting adopted goals to reduce GHG emissions, both as organizations and as a region. But there is more work to be done. 1. Implementation: The target will only be achieved by building a movement that achieves sustained action and coordination across stakeholders and sectors. Key to our success is our ability to generate awareness and educate the community about ways to reduce emissions. This Action Plan recommends: 1) Specific measures to reduce government sector emissions (Chapter V.A) 2) Community outreach and engagement (Chapter V.B) and 3) Further consideration of transportation & land use policy (Chapter VI) What will implementation cost? In the current challenging fiscal environment, no one is more aware than the City Council and Board of Commissioners of the need to make the best use of the taxpayer dollar and to eliminate waste and overhead wherever possible. For actions targeting government sector emissions, the City and County, with the assistance of the Resource Conservation Manager (RCM), will need to develop an implementation strategy and, during budget proceedings, each will need to consider earmarking funds for implementation of recommended measures. It is anticipated that the City and County will take a phased approach to implementation based on specific types of funding available, feasibility, and rate of return. There will be many competing priorities and at times it will be more effective to help fund activities to reduce emissions in the community sector rather than attempt to make smaller, more expensive reductions in the government sector. Fortunately, actions that reduce emissions also reduce electricity and fuel use, minimizing energy costs which in turn can also save an enormous amount of taxpayer dollars. Nearly every action in this document will save money, some in the near-term while others will require a longer period for cost recovery. In 2005, through ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection ® (CCP) Campaign, more than 160 U.S. local governments reported collective savings of over 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 194 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 17 of 54 23 million tons of global warming pollution and $600 million in related energy and fuel costs. Wise investments in retrofits can reap great rewards; for example, with a total investment of $105,000, the Portland City Hall Renovation Project saves the city an estimated $15,000 a year and $80,000 of upgrades to Fire Station #1 saves $8,000 a year. 2. Climate Change Preparation/Adaptation: This phase involves an examination of the possible impacts of future climate changes (e.g., increased incidence of drought, flooding, forest fires, and disease, and other impacts like rising sea levels) and developing strategies to deal with these impacts. 3. Endorse Federal and State Initiatives: The federal government must make fundamental shifts in energy policy and align its vast research and development resources with climate protection. The State of Washington has an invaluable role in transportation investments, strengthening building codes, regulating utilities, managing forest lands, reducing waste and guiding local land use policies. We have an indispensable role in pressuring federal and state governments to support our efforts. Our local action plan therefore also calls for the endorsement of state and federal actions that are required to make our actions both effective and affordable. We in Jefferson County have the primary role in developing the fundamental shape of our local community, transportation systems and buildings, and in helping individuals make informed decisions about everyday business and personal choices. In conclusion, this Climate Action Plan will guide future efforts by the City, the County and the citizens with an innovative framework for our transition to a more prosperous, sustainable and climate-stable future. In doing so, it will strengthen local economies, create more jobs, improve health, and help maintain the high quality of life for which we are already known. 1 Throughout this document, the term “carbon emissions” refers to all greenhouse gas emissions. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 195 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 18 of 54 II. The Challenge of Climate Change A. The Problem: Climate change is the defining challenge of the 21st century. The world’s leading scientists report that carbon emissions from human activities have begun to destabilize the Earth’s climate. Millions of people are already experiencing these changes through threats to public health, national and local economies, and supplies of food, water and power. Low-income and vulnerable citizens have fewer resources to respond to these changes and are facing disproportionate impacts of climate change and rising energy prices. As reported by the Department of Ecology, “This increase in greenhouse gases is resulting in an unpredictable climate that is changing rapidly. Our state is particularly vulnerable to a warming climate — especially our snow-fed water supplies that provide our drinking water, irrigation for agriculture- and nearly three-fourth of the electrical power we produce. Close to 40 communities – including some of the state’s largest population centers — along our 2,300 miles of shoreline are threatened by rising sea levels. Ocean acidification, which is created when carbon dioxide reacts with seawater and reduces the water’s pH, threatens our abundant shellfish. The survival of local salmon and shell fish is at stake, as are the economies that depend upon them.” For more information on impacts visit the Department of Ecology website at http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/index.htm Unfortunately all of these changes will intensify in the decades ahead even as we begin to reduce our emission. There is a long time lag between changes in emissions and global climate patterns. Our near future climate will first reflect the past century of emissions, while ultimately reflecting our choices today. Efforts to reduce emissions must be coupled with preparations for this climate change. B. Benefits of an Aggressive Response: To respond to these intertwined problems — climate change, social inequity, economic stressors, rising energy prices, and degraded natural systems — requires an integrated response that goes far beyond reducing carbon emissions. Climate protection must be linked with actions to create and maintain jobs, improve community livability and public health, address social equity and foster strong, resilient natural systems. By integrating these elements, Port Townsend and Jefferson County will: 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 196 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 19 of 54 1. Create Local Jobs: The past decade has proven that many of the technologies, products and services required for the shift to a low-carbon future can be provided by regional and local companies. More dollars currently spent on fossil fuels will stay in our local economy to pay for home insulation, lighting retrofits, solar panels, bicycles, engineering, design and construction. 2. Improve Social Equity: Low income and vulnerable citizens face disproportionate impacts from climate change in part because they have fewer resources to respond to these changes. We must ensure that impacted communities are included in the implementation of the Climate Action Plan in a meaningful and engaging way. Fortunately, measures that reduce emissions may also serve to improve social equity through increased access to local green jobs, healthy local food, affordable and efficient transportation and energy-efficient homes. We will need to seek out programs that ensure energy efficiency is affordable for all, for example Portland’s “Clean Energy Works” program. This program provides financing to homeowners for energy efficiency upgrades. Low income households receive the lowest interest loans. Loans are repaid through the energy cost savings. The program is a model for creation of quality jobs and advancing social equity. 3. Create Healthier Residents: Walkable neighborhoods, fresh foods and clean air mean healthier, more active residents. The “health dividend” is potentially vast in financial terms and invaluable in its contribution to quality of life. 4. Become More Energy Self-Sufficient and Secure: Every action in this Plan will reduce reliance on fossil fuels. As prices continue to increase and supplies become more uncertain, a reduced reliance on volatile oil supplies will diminish the risks faced by everyone. 5. Protect and Enhance Air and Water Quality and Natural Systems: Sustaining the values and functions of our tree canopies, forests, rivers, streams, wetlands and oceans is an essential part of our strategy. It can simultaneously reduce emissions, sequester carbon and strengthen our ability to adapt to a changing climate. 6. Save Money: Using less energy in our homes, buildings and vehicles means lower energy and transportation costs for residents, business and government. Likewise, home-grown food saves on grocery bills. The savings from reduced health-care costs of a healthy, active community are potentially most significant of all. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 197 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 20 of 54 III. Our Goal – Think Globally, Act Locally Globally - In its Fourth Assessment report in 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated that developed countries need to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to 25-40% below 1990 levels by 2020 and to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in order to keep global atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations below 450 ppm of CO2e. Subsequent studies indicate that keeping atmospheric CO2e below 350 ppm may be necessary to avoid significant climate impacts, which would require even more significant decreases in GHG emissions. In 1994, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was formed. The Convention promotes cooperation, information sharing, implementation of national strategies for reducing GHG emissions and adapting to climate change. Recently, participating countries began to submit pledges under the Copenhagen Accord (December 18, 2009) to limit global warming to less than two degrees Celsius (3.6°F) above the average global surface temperatures in the preindustrial era. As of December 2010, 114 countries have submitted pledges, including the United States. In January of 2010, the US administration announced a target to reduce emissions in the range of 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020, 42 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, and 83 percent below 2005 levels by 2050. Congress has not yet adopted these targets. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, the Copenhagen Accord is not legally binding. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 198 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 21 of 54 Table 2: Sample of Pledges Under the Copenhagen Accord3 Developed Countries Quantified economy-wide emissions targets for 2020 Base Year Australia 5 to 25% 2000 Canada 17% 2005 European Union 20% to 30% 1990 Japan 25% 1990 Russian Federation 15 to 25% 1990 United States 17% 2005 Developing Countries Pledge China 40 to 45% emission intensity reduction 2005 India 20 to 25% emission intensity reduction 2005 Source: http://www.pewclimate.org Unfortunately, a UN report completed in 2010 found that even if all the pledges were met, it is likely that further reductions will be needed to reach the stated goal.4 At the State level - More than two years ago, Governor Gregoire committed Washington State as a whole to reducing statewide greenhouse gas emissions to 50% below 1990 levels by 2050.5 Later in 2007, the Legislature codified these goals. The Department of Ecology (Ecology) is charged with monitoring the state’s progress (RCW 70.235.020). Although, according to Ecology, policies currently being implemented will limit Washington’s emissions growth to 3 percent between now and 2020; the state is not on track to meet its statutory reduction limit for 2020 or beyond. In a February 7, 2011 News Release, Ecology Director Ted Sturdevant said: “Washington state agencies have taken significant actions to reduce their own energy use and carbon emissions; to work with businesses and others on carbon reductions; to develop a program for reporting greenhouse gas emissions; and to implement the federal program to regulate greenhouse gas emissions 3 "These numbers target 450ppm for GHG, not the 350 required. Furthermore, many signatories included the following proviso "provided that other developed countries commit themselves to comparable emission reductions and that developing countries contribute adequately according to their responsibilities and respective capabilities.” 4 http://www.climatecentral.org/blog/emissions-reduction-pledges-to-date-fall-far-short-of-copenhagen-accor/ 5 http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/washington.htm 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 199 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 22 of 54 under the federal Clean Air Act.” “However, the actions that nations and states are taking now aren’t enough to forestall the impacts of climate change. So we in Washington are building a plan to help prepare our coastal communities and vital infrastructure, ensure water supply in water-short areas, and provide emergency relief for people in prolonged heat waves. It will take all of us working together to be ready for the changes that already are affecting our state.” In our Community - Jefferson County Commissioners and the Port Townsend City Council have committed to the following goals of reducing our estimated 1990 community-wide greenhouse gas emissions (an estimated 536,000 ton CO2e) as follows:6 Table 3 - Baseline Conditions and Emissions Targets Year Percent in relation to 1990 levels Emissions in Tons of CO2eq 1990 (backcast) 100% 522,868 2005 (data base) 3% higher 536,713 2012 (target) 3% higher 536,713 2020 (target) 15% lower 445,737 2030 (target) 37% lower 332,016 2050 (goal) 80% lower 104,574 In developing the interim year 2012, 2020, and 2030 targets, the CAC began with calculated 2005 emissions, and then estimated a “backcast” to 1990 and business as usual forecasts. The emission forecast to the target year of 20507 represents a “business-as-usual” prediction of how GHG emissions would grow in the absence of GHG policy, including any existing or future legislation at the state or federal level. The following figure illustrates how the business-as-usual emissions are estimated to increase, thus widening the emissions reductions needed by 2050. 6 Resolutions 44-07 and 07-022 respectively. 7 Adopted January 12, 2009 (City Resolution No 00092 County Resolution No 069). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 200 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 23 of 54 CAC used Clean Air Climate Protection Software, created by ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability, which allows for computer-calculated backcasting and forecasting using census and estimated population growth data. (For additional detail, please see Appendix C. Worksheets – C02e Forecasts and Targets) Interim years 2012, 2020 and 2030 were selected for showing emissions from “business as usual” and for interim emission level targets with the rational that this would allow the community adequate time to implement some measures to reduce emissions as we work towards our long-term goal for 2050. The interim target for 2012 is the same level as our baseline for 2005. It is hoped that due to increasing efforts already underway and new measures planned in the community and by local, state and federal governments, our emissions may have begun to level off and will return 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 201 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 24 of 54 to the 2005 baseline by the year 2012 in spite of continued growth in the population. After that date, the target follows a straight-line decline in emissions towards our long-term goal, resulting in a target of 17% below 1990 emissions by 2020, and a 38% reduction by 2030. Putting the goals into perspective – how can individuals help? These targets are difficult to comprehend. What does it mean? What will it take to achieve these targets? To put the overall targets into perspective, the CAC estimated the per person reductions that would be needed to meet the interim targets. (To be clear, the action plan focuses on actions that the City and County can carry out on their own operations. It encourages, but does not require, individuals to take action to reduce GHG emissions.) The goal is to reduce emissions despite population growth. Thus, if we were proposing to reach our goal by asking each individual to conserve energy, it would become increasingly more difficult as the population grows. Figure 4. Annual Per Capita Emissions Targets Compared to Population Growth Over Time If each of us were willing to reduce our carbon foot print, what would it take to reach the adopted targets? 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 202 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 25 of 54 It may seem impossible to reduce our consumption of fossil fuels and electricity enough for us to attain our goal by 2050. We should recall that it will be easier to do so as new technologies and efficiencies are employed during the next several decades. An example of this is shown in the Climate Action Plan for Portland/Multnomah County. They have estimated that a mere 63% reduction in vehicle miles traveled per capita will result in an 80% reduction in the total CO2 emissions from the transportation sector between 2005 and 2050, in spite of a 94% increase in population. Similarly, they project that they will require an only 68% reduction in per capital electricity use. Fortunately, there are a myriad of ways to reduce emissions. Portland Climate Action Now provides a number of ideas for reducing your carbon footprint www.portlandclimate action.org (also see Appendix F) for example, eating locally grown foods, switching to an electric mower, etc. Each of us will choose a different combination of ways to reduce energy consumption. Action must be taken at all levels if we are to succeed. The Process of change: Adopting new policies and changing behaviors will take time. The activities in our plan will be implemented gradually and their effect will at first be modest. Over time the effects will increase as ideas spread, additional policies are adopted and the benefits of our actions become more apparent. Our progress will not likely be in a straight line, but rather in a roughly “S” shaped curve with little effect at first while we get started, increasing success as actions are adopted, technologies developed and policies accepted, and then only gradual change again when we finally tackle the most difficult sources of emissions last. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 203 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 26 of 54 IV. Summary of Inventory of Energy Usage and Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions In order to set targets and develop strategies to curb our emissions, an inventory of energy usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was performed by the Climate Protection Task Force, and adopted by the Jefferson County Board of County Commissioners and the Port Townsend City Council (January 12, 2009). The following is a brief summary. (A complete copy is on file at both the City and County planning departments). Data was gathered for the Jefferson County community as a whole and for the County and City government operations as subsets of the whole. Energy use and emissions were grouped into 3 different Sectors: Stationary (buildings and equipment), Transportation (on-road mobile sources), and Solid Waste. The Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) software provided by ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability converted the energy-usage data into units of MMBtu and calculated CO2e (equivalents of CO2)released in tons (one ton equals 2,000 pounds). Table 4. Community-Wide and Government Subset Emissions 2005 Sector or Subsector Community- Wide1 (tons CO2e) Community- Wide1 (% CO2e) Jefferson County Operations (tons CO2e) Port Townsend City Operations (tons CO2e) Stationary Energy 325,133 61% 1,443 1,609 Residential 121,605 23% Commercial 49,017 9% 1,443 1,609 Industrial 154,511 29% Transportation 209,079 39% 1,886 533 Solid Waste 2,502 <1% 35 Water, PUD#18 364 Total 536,714 100% 3,728 2,142 8 The inventory included electricity consumed by Jefferson Public Utility District No. 1 to provide water service to County residents. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 204 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 27 of 54 1 Community-wide includes County and City operations. 2 Data obtained from CACP Model output. How do we compare with others? Table 5. 2005 Carbon Dioxide Annual Emissions per capita Area Metric tons of CO2 per capita United States 19.3 Canada 17.3 Jefferson County 19.4 Washington State 16.4 Germany 9.8 Sweden 5.7 China 4.3 India, Vietnam, Peru <1.5 Source: Washington State and Jefferson County numbers from Backcasting and Forecasting of GHG Emissions and Proposed Targets for Reductions in Jefferson County (available on the Jefferson County website http://www.co.jefferson.wa.us/commdevelopment/ClimateChange.htm); remainder taken from: Wikipedia which provides a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita from 1990 through 2007. All data were calculated by the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), mostly based on data collected from country agencies by the United Nations Statistics Division. Why would per capita emissions be higher in Jefferson County than elsewhere in Washington State? To answer this we turn to the source of the emissions - What is the source of these emissions? As depicted in the Community-Wide Summary below, the transportation sector is the largest emitter of GHG, representing 39% of community- wide emissions. Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for Jefferson County in 2005 were 1.3 times greater than the Washington State average. This helps explain why the total CO2e emissions of 19.4 tons per capita (Table 5 above) in Jefferson County were 1.2 times greater than the value for the entire state. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 205 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 28 of 54 Stationary Sector emissions account for 61% of total GHG emissions community-wide, with approximately one-half coming from electricity usage. Stationary sources refer to emissions generated from fixed places or objects, such as buildings and machinery. Stationary emissions include electricity, fuel oil, propane, and wood used in the Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Sectors Figure 5. Community-Wide CO2 Emissions in 2005 THIS FIGURE IS MISSING??? Emissions are for Transportation Sector and for Residential, Commercial and Industrial Subsectors of the Stationary Energy Sector. Emissions from the Solid Waste Sector were too small to include. Data obtained from CACP Model output. The inventory identified a very different profile for the City of Port Townsend when compared to the County. Thus, the two may have different priorities when it comes to reduction strategies. Residential 23% Commercial 9% Transportation 39% Industrial 29% 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 206 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 29 of 54 Figure 6. Port Townsend City Operations - CO2e Emissions in 2005 Water/Sewage 38% Employee Commute 9% Streetlights 7% Vehicles 15% Buildings 31% Figure 7. Jefferson County Operations – CO2e Emissions in 2005 Employee Commute, 19% Water PUD, 10% Buildings, 38% Vehicles, 32% Streetlights, 1% Source: CACP Model output It should be noted that at the time of the inventory, Puget Sound Energy (PSE) was the sole electric purveyor to Jefferson County. PSE's fuel mix for electricity delivered in 2010 consisted of: 41% Hydroelectric, 36% Coal, 20% Natural Gas, 1% Nuclear, and 2% Other (Source of data: PSE). The Jefferson County Public Utility District (PUD) is in the process of purchasing the local electric infrastructure from PSE. The PUD has a contract to buy power from the Bonneville Power Administration; BPA power is approximately 85 percent hydro and 15 percent nuclear. But while the change to BPA-supplied power will significantly boost our efforts to reduce carbon emissions, it does not diminish the need to conserve energy and look to green technologies as the local demand for power increases over time. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 207 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 30 of 54 V. The Plan: Objectives and Actions The goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Port Townsend and Jefferson County by 80 percent (compared to 1990 levels) by 2050 will be difficult, if not impossible, using technologies that are currently available or expected to be available in the near future. Nonetheless, the actions outlined here offer ways to begin reducing greenhouse gases today The actions contained in this plan provide a menu of recommended measures for the City and the County – the list is not intended to be limiting. We fully expect and hope that additional measures will be identified and implemented. This section is divided into two main categories: Government actions - This section recommends actions to reduce emissions from City and County operations. Community-wide actions - This section recommends education and outreach and the formation of partnerships. Several recommended voluntary measures are included. Our success requires participation at all levels. The municipal and community categories are explored independently for several reasons: • As documented in the inventory, a much finer resolution is possible for municipal operations (energy use by facility, etc.) than for the community as a whole. In this document: “Plan" refers to the entire climate action effort. "Goals" are the broad overall carbon emissions reductions - 80 percent by 2050 and 17 percent by 2020. “Objectives" are specific measurable outcomes. Objectives have been identified by sector. If we are successful in achieving each of the objectives, we will meet our 2020 interim goal. "Actions" are the specific steps that will be strategically implemented to meet the 2020 objectives. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 208 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 31 of 54 • When attention is turned to the question of where emissions reductions are possible, there will be a different set of options for municipal facilities than for private sector emissions. For example, a county might opt to implement a procurement policy requiring that certain vehicles in the county fleet be replaced by hybrid vehicles, whereas in the private sector an education program about hybrids or an incentive program would be appropriate. • Actions for government operations are under the operational or financial control of City/County government; while community-wide efforts are voluntary and incumbent upon all. A. Government Leading by Example Together, the City of Port Townsend and Jefferson County government account for less than one percent of the total emissions in our county. Despite their limited emissions, governments have an essential obligation to do their part and to lead by example. Just as the City and County must provide enabling policies, technical assistance, education, incentives and other support to help the community achieve the objectives of this Climate Action Plan, the City and County must also lead the way in their own operations. If we can demonstrate success, others may follow suit. Most of the actions listed here can also be taken by other public entities in the county, like the Public Utility District, the Port of Port Townsend, Jefferson Health Care, the school districts, the fire districts, Jefferson Transit and Fort Worden State Park. Representatives from many of these entities participated in the development of this Climate Action Plan. Furthermore, it is hoped that these different public entities will collaborate in making their operations more energy efficient by sharing resources and funding opportunities. One example of this is the new Resource Conservation Manager partly funded by grants from PSE and WSU and jointly hired by the City, the County, Fort Worden State Park, Chimacum and Port Townsend School Districts to reduce energy consumption. Most of the actions listed here are also applicable to private businesses. Hopefully citizens of our community will become increasingly motivated to take actions in their personal lives as well as in their places of work to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Increasingly, tourists and other consumers have demonstrated support for those businesses that make efforts to demonstrate their concerns about climate change. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 209 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 32 of 54 Table 6. 2020 Objectives for City and County Operations – An 18% decrease in CO2e emissions from 2005 levels. (Greenhouse gas emissions in tons of CO2e) Stationary Sources Trans- portation Solid Waste Water (& Sewer in UGAs) Total Percent of 1990 County 1,182 1,545 29 298 3,055 115% City 661 437 -- 657 1,755 115% An 18% decrease from the high emissions mark in 2005 is still 15% higher than the estimated 1990 emissions levels. As shown in Figure 8 below, this rate of reduction keeps us on track for making the needed reductions between 2020 and 2050. Once again, the reduction targets have been arbitrarily assigned to each category identified in the Inventory, realizing that one size does not fit all and that some sources of emissions may be more cost-effective to address than others. The actions listed in this plan further demonstrate some of these differences. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 210 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 33 of 54 Figure 8 CO2e Projections and Targets for City & County Operations contrasted against projected population growth. Actions listed in the following tables were derived from the CAC, citizen workshops and action plans from other communities, especially those in Portland and Multnomah County. They have been vetted by the Resource Conservation Manager (RCM) and City and County Department Heads. Existing measures currently being implemented by the City and County have been included. Actions are listed in the order by which the magnitude of emissions reductions appeared to be the highest (Additional detail is provided in the Worksheets, Appendix F). For the rough analyses, the CAC relied on municipal information, research, and the assistance of ICLEI CAPPA Software. It is anticipated that the City and County will take a phased approach to implementation based upon specific types of funding available, feasibility, and rate of return (See Appendix E. Potential Funding Sources). City and County, with the assistance of the RCM, will need to develop an implementation strategy and, during budget proceedings, 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 211 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 34 of 54 each will need to consider earmarking funds for implementation of recommended measures. The RCM will play a significant role in implementing the government actions outlined below. However, it is important to keep the scope of the RCM clear. Due to the source of grant funding, the RCM does not currently handle transportation related energy costs. The first two years of the RCM scope also exclude assessment of costs associated with the pool and golf course. Though it is hoped the RCM’s position will be more flexible in future, in the interim others will need to take the lead in these areas. Tables 7 and 8, Actions for Reducing Emissions from City and County Government Operations, refer to worksheets found in Appendix E which provide additional detail. Again, we emphasize, the actions contained in this plan are not intended to be limiting. We fully expect and hope that additional measures will be identified and implemented and that some of these may allow a further reduction in Government Sector emissions as well as those in the community at large. Furthermore, the city and county should continue to monitor action at the federal and state level and encourage legislation that supports local efforts. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 212 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 35 of 54 Table 7. Actions for Reducing City Government Emissions City of Port Townsend  Government Operations  Worksheet Action Lead Cost  Recovery  (Years)  CO2e (metric tons) 1.14 Purchase Green Energy from the grid City Manager n/a 320  1.1  Build all new City buildings and develop sites to at least  a LEED Silver criterion, or some other third‐party  certification of energy, water and waste conservation  strategies (e.g., Architecture 2030)  City Council  and Public  Works 0.46 118  1.4  Conduct energy audits for each city or county owned  buildings and infrastructure to develop and implement a  plan to reduce energy consumption. RCM 4.81 112  1.9 Convert Streetlights to LED  Public Works 2.49 43  1.13  Set goals for government departments and encourage  all local businesses to become certified by the Green  Business program of Jefferson County Health  City  Manager,  RCM &  County Env.  Health   40  1.6  Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for  stand‐alone lighting on streets and in parks, where  appropriate and productive  RCM & Public  Works 18.26 24  1.7  Establish a reduced idling policy for all government  vehicles (heavy trucks)  Dept. Heads,  Fleet Mgr &  CAC 0.04 61  E‐Cars More efficient fleet and use of vehicles  Fleet  Manager   40  1.5  Replace low‐efficiency and high‐emission vehicles with  fuel‐efficient & low‐emission vehicles, like plug‐in  hybrids, as soon as possible  Fleet  Managers &  Dept. Heads 0.00 22  1.10  Create incentives for employees to reduce  emissions in their daily commute Dept. Heads 1.08 14  1.2  Implement vehicle trip reduction policy incorporating  teleconferencing, telecommuting and alternative work  schedules, where practical. Establish video and/or web  conferencing capabilities in all major City and County  facilities Dept. Heads 4.09 14  1.3  Use electric vehicles or bicycles whenever possible (e.g.,  for meter reading and building inspection)  CAC & Fleet  Manager 5.09 11  E‐Meters  Replace all the water meters with remote read meters.  About 400 of the total 5,000 are already remote read. Public Works 1.44 9  12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 213 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 36 of 54 1.7  Establish a reduced idling policy for all government  vehicles (light vehicles)  Fleet  Managers &  Dept. Heads 0.03 4               Total Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (* above 2020 goal)832  12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 214 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 37 of 54 Table 8. Actions for Reducing County Government Emissions Jefferson County  Government Operations  Worksheet Action Lead Cost  Recovery  (Years)  CO2e (metric tons) 1.14 Purchase Green Energy from the grid BOCC n/a 967  1.4  Conduct energy audits for each city or county owned  buildings and infrastructure to develop and implement a  plan to reduce energy consumption. RCM 6.42 188  1.13  Set goals for government departments and encourage  all local businesses to become certified by the Green  Business program of Jefferson County Health  RCM &  County Env.  Health 0.09 124  1.6  Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for  stand‐alone lighting on streets and in parks, where  appropriate and productive  RCM &  Public  Works 18.26 47  1.2  Implement vehicle trip reduction policy incorporating  teleconferencing, telecommuting and alternative work  schedules, where practical. Establish video and/or web  conferencing capabilities in all major City and County  facilities  BOCC,  Electeds &  Dept. Heads 1.03 54  1.7  Establish a reduced idling policy for all government  vehicles   BOCC,  Electeds &  Fleet Mgr. 0.05 42  1.5  Replace low‐efficiency and high‐emission vehicles with  fuel‐efficient & low‐emission vehicles, like plug‐in  hybrids, as soon as possible  Dept Heads,  Electeds,  Fleet Mgr. 0.00 28  1.10  Create incentives for employees to reduce  emissions in their daily commute  BOCC,  Electeds,  Dept Heads 1.95 23  1.3  Use electric vehicles or bicycles whenever possible (e.g.,  for meter reading and building inspection)  BOCC,  Electeds,  Dept. Heads 5.09 7  E‐4day 4‐Day Work Week Dept. Heads 0.00 6  E‐Zenn Electric Vehicles Dept. Heads 0.00 4  Total Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (9% above 2020 goal)1,490  In developing this plan, we listed and analyzed the actions that we believed were within our current capabilities. They clearly do not yield reductions below 1990 by the year 2020, but they do put the government sector on track to meet the 2050 goal. Perhaps interim targets for all of Jefferson County should not be arbitrarily applied to every sector, every 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 215 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 38 of 54 building, every business or every individual. Instead, a reasoned approach needs to be applied that considers many factors. A case in point is the Government Sector, which produces less than 1% of the emissions in our county. Some of these are generated by essential services like the fire departments, police and sheriff departments, and water and sewer utilities, where emissions reductions may be very costly or unwise. It may be more cost effective to reduce emissions in the community rather than in the government sector. Limited resources may yield greater reductions in emissions in helping homeowners make private homes more energy efficient than in further retrofitting historic government buildings. Some government investments could significantly reduce overall community emissions for example, investments in promoting a shift in transportation mode away from motor vehicle use and toward increased walking, bicycling and transit use. This could be realized by implementing a number of strategies including: a significant investment for expanded Jefferson Transit service; greater investment in walking and biking facilities; a reduction, maximum cap, or elimination of motor vehicle parking requirements; and instituting parking fees in the commercial centers. These steps would result in a modest increase in Jefferson Transit’s emissions but could yield an immense reduction in overall community emissions. In spite of our limited abilities to reduce emissions further today, we must be prepared to take advantage of every opportunity to reduce our community-wide emissions in the near future. The Government Sector must play a leadership role in continuing to make this issue a high priority. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 216 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 39 of 54 B. Encouraging Community-wide Reductions While the City or County will have a major role in carrying out many of the following objectives and actions, successful implementation will require many diverse partners, including neighboring jurisdictions, non- profit organizations, business leaders, and neighborhood associations. Education and Outreach. Educating ourselves about the need for change, the choices available to us, and the values that motivate us is a fundamental part of this plan. In order to reach our greenhouse gas emission reduction targets, Port Townsend & Jefferson County need informed and supportive employees and citizens. Government must promote a broad awareness of the predicted effects of climate change and provide the tools and incentives to reduce GHG emissions in homes, businesses, and workplaces. Outreach efforts will require the formation of partnerships – both municipal partnerships and public-private partnerships. The City and County have already begun to reach out to other counties and cities, here on the Olympic Peninsula including Clallam County, Port Angeles and Sequim. Examples of government partnerships include: • Peninsula Development District (PDD), through the PDD, local jurisdictions collaborated on a proposal and submitted a grant application (the DOT TIGER II – HUD Community Challenge Planning Grant) to develop and implement a regional strategy to reduce vehicle miles traveled and plan for a more sustainable transportation system across the North Olympic Peninsula. Though the DOT TIGER II grant was not funded, the PDD will continue to seek funding. • Jefferson County Public Health Green Business Program – Staff from the Green Business Program have been coordinating with CAC staff and anticipate enhanced outreach under the existing Green Business program. This program is focused on assisting businesses in developing cost-effective “green” solutions to prevent waste and pollution, and to conserve valuable resources. The program provides free technical assistance to business aimed at improving existing practices. Green Business is a voluntary program that gives recognition to businesses that are working to reduce waste, recycle and otherwise conduct business in an environmentally conscience manner. http://www.jeffersoncountypublichealth.org/index.php?green- business 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 217 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 40 of 54 • The Jefferson County Public Utility District (PUD) is in the process of purchasing the local electric infrastructure from Puget Sound Energy (PSE). As a public utility, the PUD uses community input in making local energy policy decisions, and takes a lead role in encouraging energy conservation and the reduction of greenhouse gases through incentive and outreach efforts. • ICLEI for Sustainable Governments is another example of a collaborative effort. With over 600 member jurisdictions, ICLEI provides software support for analyzing the effect of reduction activities, and other resources for ideas. ICLEI tools have proven invaluable in the development of the inventory and targets as well as evaluating measures to reduce emissions. Other potential partners include: • Local 2020 - a citizen-based organization dedicated to exploring opportunities in our local community to promote economic self- reliance, environmental stewardship, and community well-being. Local 2020 holds regular meetings offering opportunity for community members to voice their thoughts and get involved, maintains an informative website, and distributes a weekly email newsletter. http://www.L2020.org • Jefferson CAN - Jefferson Climate Action Now is a website dedicated to giving individuals the tools needed to save energy, save money, and reduce their carbon (CO2) footprint – at home, at work, and on the road – with tools specific for Jefferson County, Washington.– www.JeffersonCAN.org • Jefferson County HomeBuilders - As per Homebuilders website, “Built Green™ of Jefferson County’s program is tailored to fit our unique community. The guidelines demonstrate that green building is not an “all or nothing” method of construction. Experienced builders will not be daunted by any of this. The checklist provides a baseline for determining minimum thresholds for cost-effective, resource-efficient homebuilding. Conservation of materials, energy efficiency and good site planning are among the items considered.” http://www.jeffcobuiltgreen.com/ • Other local government entities such as the Port of Port Townsend, the local school districts, and the PUD. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 218 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 41 of 54 Objectives & Recommended Actions The Climate Action Committee has identified several potential actions to be implemented as part of the campaign. All are voluntary. With the exception of the First Priority Item - Task the CAC with Designing and Implementing the Community Outreach Campaign - they are not listed in any particular order nor are they all inclusive. There are numerous measures that may be implemented to reduce emissions and new opportunities will arise as technology evolves. Five Action Areas have been identified and are further outlined in the following tables: • Education and Outreach • Buildings and Energy • Urban Form and Transportation • Consumption and Solid Waste • Food & Agriculture Table 9. Objectives & Recommended Actions for Community-wide Emissions Reductions Education and Outreach Objective: Actively engage the public in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 1. Task the CAC with Designing and Implementing the Community Outreach Campaign. The campaign should be designed to build on existing efforts, foster partnerships and develop new initiatives. The CAC committee membership may be modified to include representatives from the following: Jefferson County Builders Association – Built Green Jefferson County Public Health – Green Business Local 20/20 – JeffersonCAN WSU Jefferson County Extension RCM Research has identified a set of tools to promote behavior change: obtaining commitments, using prompts, utilizing social norms, designing effective communications, providing incentives, and 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 219 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 42 of 54 removing external barriers. Depending on the audience and available funding, a variety of outreach materials may be produced (e.g., expanded websites, electronic newsletters, email messages, brochures, print ads, flyers, and postcards for direct mailings; newspaper articles; workshops, festivals or fairs, curriculum or lesson plans for grades K-12). At a minimum, the CAC should: • Apprise electeds and interested parties of federal and state plans and legislative actions which may impact the County’s/City’s ability to attain GHG reduction goals. • Partner with local media to publish articles and a regular newspaper column with information about sustainability and maintain a reference list and links on the website. (B-1.14) • Engage and inspire other public institutions and private businesses to incorporate climate protection action into their daily affairs. • Promote voluntary measures that reduce emissions – including measures recommended herein. • Partner with local educational institutions to develop and provide classes for clean energy, gardening, agriculture, sustainability skills. (B-1.15) Buildings and Energy Encourage Community Action Objective. Community-wide emissions target of 445,737 tons of CO2eq by 2020. Currently, this sector accounts for 61% of overall emissions. 1 Conservation – Encourage businesses and homeowners to reduce energy and water consumption (e.g., energy from outdoor lighting can be reduced by minimizing the number, using motion sensors, or installing highʖefficiency bulbs, etc.) Note: Lower water usage cuts energy consumption for water treatment and pumping. 2 Promote the use of drought-tolerant native plants as well as tolerant non-natives. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 220 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 43 of 54 3 Increase use of energy assessments in homes and businesses by encouraging owners to conduct assessments periodically. 4 Encourage all local businesses, to become certified by the Green Business program of Jefferson County Health. (NOTE: This program incorporates many of the measures listed throughout this Climate Action Plan.) (A-1.13) 5 Establish lowʖinterest loan and energy assistance programs that reduce energy consumption (e.g., weatherization, appliances, lighting, heating, ventilating and air conditioning improvements, and renewable energy) for both existing and new housing. 6 Provide and/or promote incentives for carbonʖreducing design & retrofit of buildings (e.g. passive solar, solarʖthermal, solarʖphotovoltaic, heat pumps, wind, and other renewableʖenergy systems.) One example is the FIRST program. Objective: 15% of total energy used within Jefferson County will be from renewable energy sources. This figure was taken from the City of Portland Multnomah County Climate Action Plan 2009 and serves as a reminder of the hierarchy of energy efficiency for transportation. Urban Form and Transportation Encourage Community Action Objective: Community-wide emissions target of 445,737 tons of CO2eq by 2020. Currently, the transportation sector accounts for 39% of overall emissions. 1 Develop a program to promote ride‐sharing, walking and biking; such as Whatcom County’s Smart Trips program and the grant application developed by the Peninsula Development District (PDD) for the 2010 DOT TIGER II – HUD Community Challenge Planning Grant) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 221 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 44 of 54 2 Develop a commuter‐friendly transit plan and increase service. 3 Reduce transportation energy needs by promoting the purchase of local goods and services. 4 Increase consumption of local food in facilities with central cafeterias; such as schools, hospital and housing. 5 Provide strategically placed recharging stations and priority parking for electric vehicles. 6 Increase non‐motorized transportation infrastructure by fully implementing existing plans in PT. Build "complete streets" with facilities for pedestrians and bicycles. 7 Explore barge shipping as a more efficient means of transporting freight. 8 Support investments to provide high-performance broadband connectivity to every business and residence to enable widespread e- commerce, telecommuting and improved emergency response. Consumption and Solid Waste Encourage Community-wide Objective: Community-wide emissions target of 445,737 tons of CO2eq by 2020. Currently, solid waste accounts for less than 1% of overall emissions. . 1 Reduce trash through incentives and other measures. (E.g. Require waste recycling especially for construction sites; increase pickʖup services for reuse, upcycling and recycling; and encourage reduced use of packaging, especially for building materials.) 2 Increase composting of all food and yard waste through a variety of measures (e.g. neighborhood composting centers, worm bins, etc.) 3 Encourage relocation or deconstruction and recycling of structures to be demolished. 4 Encourage adaptive reuse of buildings. Food & Agriculture Encourage Community-wide Objective: Community-wide emissions target of 445,737 tons of CO2eq by 2020. 1 Promote sustainable local organic farming - 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 222 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 45 of 54 VI. Transportation and Land Use Policies - For Further Consideration City Council and the Board of County Commissioners tasked the CAC with developing recommended amendments to the county and city codes and comprehensive plans to align with the Climate Action Plan strategies City and County Codes define distinct public participation processes for adoption of land use comprehensive plan amendments and development regulations, through which the suggested code and policy amendments specified below, have not yet been vetted. The City Council and Board of County Commissioners hereby direct their respective Planning & Development Services Departments to take the following steps: • Review the recommended strategies for consistency with adopted policies. • If consistent and non-regulatory in nature, implement the strategy as resources allow. • For all other strategies, further investigate the potential emissions reductions and feasibility of strategies and advance those with the greatest potential for success during the next cycle of Comprehensive Plan update/amendments to the development regulations. Land Use Policy recommendations are divided into three sections: Rural Resource Management, to enhance the carbon sequestering potential of the County’s forests, farms and open spaces Urban Form and Transportation, to locate and move both people and goods in a carbon-efficient manner and provide regional tools for compact, livable communities of mixed uses. A: Rural Resource Management Maximizing Carbon Sequestration in Natural Resource Lands and Open Space Much of Jefferson County’s land is natural resource land, including forestry, agriculture, open space, conservation land, and critical areas such as wetlands and wildlife habitat. Our large land base, particularly 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 223 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 46 of 54 that in forestry, provides a large amount of sequestration for carbon emissions generated elsewhere. Jefferson County should maximize this “carbon sink” function of our natural resource lands by supporting and encouraging management practices that retain or improve storage. Jefferson County should work with the forestry and agricultural communities to explore ways to turn net-carbon-emitting natural resource lands into carbon sinks, without jeopardizing the profitable industry. Options to be explored include, but are not limited to: 1. Explore economic incentives (e.g., Tax benefits or other subsidies) that may encourage landowners to increase carbon storage on their land as well as decrease the conversion out of farmland and forest use. 2. Fund demonstration projects and highlight best practices for forestry and agriculture. 3. Seek ways to cluster legally allowed development rights on smaller portions of natural resource lands and permanently conserve the carbon sequestration qualities of the remaining land (this may be accomplished on a working forest/farm if properly managed). 4. Identify key areas with high carbon sequestration rates and consider protection measures such as transfer of development rights, purchase of development rights/conservation easements. 5. Assess the potential for increasing carbon sequestration on County-owned forest lands. 6. Increase tree planting requirements or incentives for all public and private projects, including transportation projects that incorporate the use of trees. Tree lined corridors provide a carbon sponge and increase the attractiveness of the area. 7. Increase investment in local wood manufacturing businesses that are able to supply local products for wood markets. 8. Increase the amount of local wood products grown and manufactured locally and purchased by government and private sectors. Thus encouraging the economic viability of forest land in our area. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 224 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 47 of 54 B: Urban Form and Transportation There is no practical way to divorce land use and transportation. As our community develops, we must be mindful of where we build and how we build. Emissions from buildings account for more than half of the total community-wide GHG emissions in Jefferson County (Stationary emissions including buildings and machinery account for 61%). Traveling between destinations accounts for over half of the carbon emissions released in Washington State and 39% of Jefferson County community-wide emissions. In general, concentrating development within established community and economic centers will produce fewer harmful effects than development outside these centers. For this reason, the County, in coordination with the City, should emphasize the need for future development to occur within urban growth areas (UGAs) and other areas suitable for more intensive development as identified in each jurisdiction’s Comprehensive Plan Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend should collaborate to manage growth in accordance with the Growth Management Act (GMA) in a manner that: • Adheres to principles of sustainability and reduction of carbon emissions • Promotes more livable, pedestrian/bike-friendly, transit-oriented communities • Preserves carbon sink potential of surrounding rural and natural resources areas. Built Green and LEED are two national standards for energy efficiency and sustainability in new construction and remodeling. In practice, Built Green is used more in residential projects while LEED is used more in commercial projects. Both organizations offer comprehensive means to rate newly proposed subdivisions or other large-scale residential development: the Built Green Communities Checklist and LEED for Neighborhood Development. The City and County should consider the following policy options: 1. Direct staff to research the benefits of implementing a city and county energy code for commercial and residential construction that exceeds current WA state code (e.g. greater insulation, passive solar, Passive House and small footprints) and for new buildings, site development and substantial remodels consider establishing a minimum compliance target (e.g., meet at least a LEED Silver or similar level for Built Green or another green building standard). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 225 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 48 of 54 2. Within designated UGAs, encourage increased urban density through code revisions for items such as setbacks, height restrictions, cluster and mixedʖuse development. 3. Consider further reductions in off‐street parking requirements in order to increase density and further promote transportation choices. 4. Increase non‐motorized transportation infrastructure by completing NMTP plans for areas in the county. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 226 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 49 of 54 VII. Monitoring & Adaptive Management As with the Objectives and Actions in Section V, monitoring for the municipal and community categories are explored independently, primarily because a much finer resolution is possible for municipal operations (energy use by facility, etc.) than for the community as a whole. Applying an adaptive management approach, we will monitor our progress, track changing conditions, and explore the feasibility of additional measures as we become aware of new information and technological advancements. In general, when vetting new measures the following basic criteria should be considered: Benefits: the primary goal is reduction of GHG emissions, however several measures will have side benefits such as cost savings and indirect benefits (e.g., jobs, health benefits) Feasibility – including cost, technical, economic, and political/social aspects of the measure We must be able to implement new measures in a timely fashion. Though regulatory measures will require time to vet through the public process; measures to reduce government emissions may be implemented at the direction of the city manager/county administrator (BoCC/Council approval may be required if capital expenditures are involved) and voluntary measures may be encouraged at anytime. Government Emissions Tracking For each action recommended for implementation, the City and County will work to refine, monitor, and report on measurable indicators of success. A number of tools and practices exist that can enable the City and County to track and report progress toward achieving the goals outlined in this plan, including monitoring the funds allocated to climate-protection goals. Tools can be as simple as spreadsheet tracking sheets developed to monitor estimated annual energy and water savings; waste diverted, and associated GHGs reduced. Most of the actions recommended in Section A are under the purview of and will be monitored by the Resource Conservation Manager. Those measures falling outside of the RCM’s scope of work (e.g., measures to reduce fuel consumption by vehicles) will need to be monitored by the fleet manager or other designated staff. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 227 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 50 of 54 Community-wide Emissions Tracking The Climate Action Committee should be tasked with conducting a GHG emissions inventory approximately every three to five years. Measuring GHG emissions on a regular basis is important to verifying that the climate initiatives are effectively reducing emissions and that the appropriate scale of GHG reductions are being pursued. The CAC should use all available and emerging tools (e.g., ICLEI’s CAPPA software) to aide in monitoring progress. Other indicators of success may include miles of bike lanes, transit ridership, increased fuel efficiency, and number of households actively participating in composting and recycling programs. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 228 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 51 of 54 GLOSSARY OF TERMS Adaptation Climate adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. For example, relocating development from areas prone to flooding, adjusting to increased summer drought conditions). Compare to mitigation. Backcasting The process of estimating a previous GHG emission if a base year's emissions are known. This estimate is based primarily on the ratio of the population of the base year to the population at some previous time. It is assumed that this population ratio is proportional to the ratio of the base year emissions to that of the previous year being backcast. (For our reports, the base year for which we had good data was 2005. In backcasting to 1990 we used not only changes in population but included as well an estimate of how the Port Townsend Paper Corporation emissions had been reduced since then.) Carbon footprint Shorthand for an estimate of the total GHG emissions caused by, or associated with, a person, product, activity, or organization. Usually expressed in units of CO2e. An average. In 2007, an average American’s carbon footprint was about 19 tons of CO2e per year. In the United Kingdom it was 9, while in China it was 5. (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_carbon_dioxide_emissi ons_per_capita) CAPPA Software ‘Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant' is designed by ICLEI to help U.S. local governments explore, identify and analyze potential climate and air pollution emissions reduction opportunities. CAPPA allows users to compare the relative benefits of a wide variety of emissions reduction measures, and helps identify those most likely to be successful for a community based on its priorities and constraints. CAPPA includes a customizable and expandable library of more than 110 distinct emissions reduction strategies for local governments. Its calculation functions are based on real-world data from other U.S. communities and a variety of expert sources. CO2 Carbon dioxide, a colorless, odorless gas consisting of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. CO2 is created during combustion of 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 229 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 52 of 54 carbon-based fuels and absorbed by most plants in photosynthesis. CO2 currently exists at a global average concentration of 385 parts per million by volume in Earth’s atmosphere. (As reported by NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association, in January 2011. www.co2now.org) CO2e Carbon dioxide equivalent. A measure used to compare the effect of a greenhouse gas in terms of an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide. Emission intensity reduction Reduction of carbon emissions per Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Fossil fuels Fuels derived from geologically ancient vegetation that has been transformed into coal, petroleum and natural gas over long periods of time. GHG Greenhouse gas. Chiefly carbon dioxide (CO2), Water, Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O) Chlorofluorocarbons, all of which in the atmosphere absorb heat radiation coming from the earth and reradiate it back to the earth thus causing a net increase in the heat balance of the earth. This is actually different than how greenhouses work by isolating warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection. See CO2e. Gigaton A unit of measure equal to one billion metric tons. A metric ton is approximately 2,205 pounds. ICLEI Also known as “ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability”, ICLEI is an association of over 1200 local government Members from 70 different countries representing more than 569,885,000 people who are committed to sustainable development. ICLEI provides technical consulting, training, and information services to build capacity, share knowledge, and support local government in the implementation of sustainable development at the local level. Our basic premise is that locally designed initiatives can provide an effective and cost-efficient way to achieve local, national, and global sustainability objectives. Founded in 1990 and initially called 'International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives' (ICLEI), its mission expanded and its name was changed in 2003. (www.iclei.org) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 230 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 53 of 54 IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The IPCC is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization and by the United Nations Environment Programmed. Visit the IPCC website at www.ipcc.ch. kW-h Kilowatt-hour, when you use 1000 watts for 1 hour, that's a kilowatt- hour. For example, it is the amount of energy needed to light a 100 Watt light bulb for 10 hours. LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is an ecology- oriented building certification program run under the auspices of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). LEED concentrates its efforts on improving performance across five key areas of environmental and human health: energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality, materials selection, sustainable site development and water savings. LEED has special rating systems that apply to all kinds of structures, including schools, retail and healthcare facilities. Rating systems are available for new construction and major renovations as well as existing buildings. There are 4 levels of energy efficiency of a building. They are in increasing order: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum. Mitigation Climate mitigation is any action taken to permanently eliminate or reduce the long-term risk and hazards of climate change to human life, property. Examples include making our vehicles and buildings more energy efficient, expanding carbon “sinks”, trading single-occupancy cars for mass transit, switching to renewable energy sources, etc. Compare to adaptation. MMBtu 1million Btu. The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a standard unit of measurement used to denote both the amount of heat energy in fuels and the ability of appliances and air conditioning systems to produce heating or cooling... It is approximately the amount of energy needed to heat 1 pint (which weighs 16 ounces) of water one degree Fahrenheit. One Btu is approximately one fourth of a food Calorie or 0.29 kW-h. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 231 Final – Adopted November 14, 2011 Page 54 of 54 Resource Conservation Manager (RCM) Individual dedicated to supporting an agency’s resource conservation program, focusing on energy, water and solid waste. Five jurisdictions (Jefferson County, the City of Port Townsend, Port Townsend and Chimacum School Districts, Fort Worden State Park) hired a shared RCM in November 2010 on a three year contract to evaluate their resource usage and create facility action plans. UGA Urban Growth Area (UGAs) - areas designated by a county, with input from towns and cities, where urban development is to occur. The UGA is one of the major tools provided by the Growth Management Act for deciding where urban development should be encouraged and where the limits to that development should end. UGAs are areas where growth and higher densities are expected and supported by urban services. By directing growth into urban areas, natural resource lands – such as farms and forests – can be conserved and the rural character of rural lands can be maintained. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 232 Appendix A Joint Resolution County 44-07 City 07-022 to commit to addressing energy use and climate change 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 233 STATE OF WASHINGTON County of Jefferson JOINT RESOLUTION OF THE BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND THE PORT TOWNSEND CITY COUNCIL TO COMMIT TO ADDRESSING ENERGY USE AND CLIMATE CHANGE GLOBAL WARMING 44 07 COUNTY RESOLUTION NO 07 022 CITY RESOLUTION NO The Bo d of County Commissioners of Jefferson County Washington and the City Council of Port Townsend Washington do jointly resolve as follows WHEREAS numerous scientific organizations havedetermmed that warming of the climate system is unequivocal as evidenced by increases in global average air and ocean temperatures recedipg glaciers decreasing snow pack and coral bleaching and by rising global mean sea levels and further is pot ntially damaging to our environment and our economy and WHEREAS energy consumption specifically the burning of fossil fuels e g coal oil and gas accounts for more than 80 of U S greenhouse gas emissions and that the U S produces nearly one quarter of all global emissions and WHEREAS the governments of Jefferson County and the City ofPort Townsend can greatly influence the community s energy usage by exercising power over land use transportation building construction waste management and energy supply and management and WHEREAS governments can provide leadership by motivating andsupportiilg citizens to improve energy use within businesses port facilities schools churches and homes and WHEREAS Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend recognize that the probable adverse effects on our citizens and infrastructure and on our mountains glaciers forests rivers oceans and other waterways from severe weather rising temperatures and rising sea levels due to climate change pose a risk to future economic viability and WHEREAS actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency provide multiple local benefits by decreasing air pollution creating jobs reducing energy expenditures saving money and reducing tax burdens for governments businesses and citizens NOW THEREFORE BE rI RESOLVED that Jefferson County and the City ofPort Townsend commit to collaborate in a program to reduce greenhouse gasemissions specifically Collaborating with the Climate Protection Campaign volunteers in conducting a comprehensive baseline inventory oflocal energy uses that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions especially C02 and making estimates ofcurrent emissions and forecasts offuture emissions if current practices do not change Appointing a joint City County citizen s committee tasked with developing a Local Climate Action Plan Specifically the committee should provide recommendations for achieving a community 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 234 wide standard of cutting greenhouse gas emissions to levels 80 percent lower than 1990 levels by 2050 with preliminary reduction targets to be set for earlier years Implementing policies and measures to meet the emission reduction targets and Monitoring and verifying results This resolution shall become effective upon adoption by the Board of County Commissioners and the City of PortTownsend APPROVED AND SIGNED THIS 29th DAY OF MAY 2007 SEAL f W i ATTEST YlC Clerk of the Board SIGNED THIS q fh Jq tVDAYOFMkY 2007 CITY OF PORT TOWNSEND Mark Welch Mayor Delufy 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 235 Consent Agenda JEFFERSON COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS CONSENT AGENDA REQUEST TO Board of County Commissioners John Fischbach County Administrator ItAlScalfDirectorDepartmentofCommunityDevelopmentDC Karen Barrows Assistant Planner Long Range Planning LRP FROM DATE May 29 2007 SUBJECT RE Request for Consent Agenda item for the Joint Resolution to Commit to Addressing Climate Change Global Warming STATEMENT OF ISSUE The Department of Community Development Long Range Planning Division is requesting that the Board of County Commissioners BoCC adopt the Joint Resolution committing Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend to collaborate in a program to measure energy use and to reduce local greenhouse gas emissions The proposed Joint Resolution is attached for your review ANALYSIS STRATEGIC GOALS In April 2007 a citizen s group called theClimate Protection Campaign drafted a climate change resolution modeled on a resolution which recently passed in Clallam County The BoCC has recently been briefed by members ofthe citizen s group which includes Kees Kolff and Bill Wise and ajoint City CouncillBoCC meeting on the issue was held on May 17 2007 Prior to the joint meeting the Climate Protection Campaign hosted a rallying event called Step It Up in Port Townsend on Saturday April 14 2007 which was part of a nationwide effort to address the issue approximately two hundred 200 people attended the function and pledged support via petitions for the ideas contained in the resolution The proposed draft resolution is consistent with The Strategic Goals of the BoCC set forth in 2001 especially numbers 14 5 and 7 Briefly these Goals provide for the need to create a sustainable and balanced economic base by seeking to lower energy and infrastructure costs new opportunities for local businesses as energy needs and delivery systems change a sustainable utilization of natural resources a healthy and safe citizenry affordable government The resolution is also consistent with the Leadership s Guiding Principles section of the Strategic Goals document FISCAL IMPACT Ifthe City and County choose to do so it will cost 600 00 to join the Task Force of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives ICLEI which includes computer software and consultation fees Implementation of the resolution will be long range and multifaceted and thus calculating total costs is impossible at this stage of the process Since lowering carbon based energy usage emissions is a primary goal ofthe resolution an eventual net cost savings is the predicted result RECOMMENDATION DCD staff recommends BoCC approval REVIEWED BY John Fischbach County Administrator s fL 07 Date 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 236 Appendix B Joint Resolution of the Board of County Commissioners County Resolution No 02-08 and the Port Townsend City Council City Resolution No 08-001 Providing Composition Terms of Office and Procedural Rules for the Climate Action Committee 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 237 STATE OF WASHINGTON County of Jefferson City of Port Townsend Joint Resolution of the Board of County Commissioners And the Port Townsend City Council Providing Composition Terms of Office And Procedural Rules for the Climate Action Committee County Resolution No 02 08 City Resolution No 08 001 The Board of County Commissioners BoCC of Jefferson County Washington and the City Council ofPortTownsendWashingtondoherebyjointlyresolveasfollows WHEREAS Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend have adopted a joint resolution County44 07 City 07 022 to commit to addressing energy use and climate change global warming and WHEREAS the above mentioned resolution establishes a joint County City committee herein called the Climate Action Committee CAC tasked with developing a local climate action plan and WHEREAS the CAC is charged with providing recommendations for achieving a community widestandardofcuttinggreenhousegasemissionstolevels80lowerthan1990levelsby2050with preliminary reduction targets to be set for earlier years and WHEREAS Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend have committed to implementing policiesandmeasurestomeettheemissionreductiontargetsandtomonitoringandverifyingresultsand WHEREAS the CAC will bring together representatives from the city and county governments as well as from various sectors of our community that may provide input as well as furthering communityacceptanceoftheactionplanand WHEREAS Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend value the natural resources of the regionandrecognizetheimportanceofprotectingandconservingsaidresourcesand WHEREAS Jefferson County and the City of Port Townsend recognize that the probable adverse effects on our citizens and infrastructure and on our mountains glaciers forests rivers oceans and other waterways from severe weather rising temperatures and rising sea levels due to climate change pose a risk to future economic viability NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED by the City Council of the City of Port Townsend and the Board of County Commissioners as follows Section 1 Establishment Formation of the Climate Action Committee is hereby specifically approved by the Port Townsend CityCouncilandbytheBoardofCountyCommissionersofJeffersonCountyTheCommitteeshallfollow applicable County and City rules pertaining to citizen advisory committees The BoCC and City Council shall resolve any conflict that may arise between applicable rules Section 2 Purpose and Scope of Work 2 1 The Purpose of the Climate Action Committee CAC is to serve as an advisory group to the City of Port Townsend and Jefferson County on climate protection policies programs and priorities CAC will have no formal decision making responsibilities 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 238 Joint County City Resolution re Climate Action Committee 2 2 The principal role of the CAe is to create a Climate Action Plan with specific focus on reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions 2 3 The draft Climate Action Plan to be approved by the City Council and the Board of County Commissioners shall include at a minimum 2 3 1 Preliminary reduction targets for greenhouse gas emissions for years prior to 2 3 2 A set of strategies and relative priorities 2 3 3 Climate Action Plan implementation steps 2 34 A monitoring plan including quantifiable benchmarks 2 3 5 Recommended amendments to the county and city codes and comprehensive plans in accordance with the Climate Action Plan strategies 24 Within six months of its formation the CAC shall present for approval by the Board of County Commissioners and City Council a work plan outlining the proposed process timelines and resources required to prepare the Climate Action Plan The timeline shall include each of the above listed elements of the plan with preliminary recommendations to be submitted within one year opportunities for public comment periodic reports to the BoCC and City Council The CAC shall work with County and City staff to develop a work plan that is cognizant of available financial and human resources 2 5 The CAC will meet as needed to complete the scope of work outlined herein 2 6 Participation as a CAC member will not and does not preclude one s later participation in any formal review or comment process before the City Council and or Board of County Commissioners Section 3 Committee Members Appointment and Confirmation Process Terms Vacancies 3 1 The Board of County Commissioners and the City Council shall each appoint an elected official as a representative to the CAC 3 2 The Chair of the BoCC and the Mayor in consultation with the County Administrator and City Manager shall review letters of interest and recommend individuals to serve on the CAC for appointment by the Council and Board of County Commissioners The committee shall consist of no more than 15 members representing a broad range of interests which may include but is not limited to Board of County Commissioners City Council Education Schools Builders Industry e g PortMarine Trades Port Townsend Paper Corporation Business e g Chamber EDC Non motorized transportation and or Transit Faith Based Organizations Citizens at Laroe Page 2 of 6 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 239 Joint County City Resolution re Climate Action Committee 3 3 Each person shall be deemed appointed and shall commence service after confirmation by the Board of County Commissioners and City Councilor on the effective date of the previous member s resignation or on the expiration of the existing term for the position as applicable Section 4 Officers Election and Duties 4 1 The officers of the CAC shall consist of a Chair and a Vice Chairperson elected from the appointed members of the CAC and such other officers as the CAC may by majority vote approve and appoint 4 2 The election of officers shall take place once each year on the occasion of the first meeting of each calendar year The term of each officer shall run from that meeting until the first meeting of the subsequent calendar year 4 3 In the event of a vacancy of the Chair the Vice Chairperson would replace the Chair and the Vice Chairperson replaced by vote of the members of the CAC 4 4 The Chair will sign documents of the CAC and represent the committee before the Board of County Commissioners and City Council The Chair is entitled to a single vote and shall retain the right and responsibility to participate in all deliberations and to vote on all matters The Vice Chair will act for the Chair in the Chair s absence Section 5 Meetings 5 1 The CAC shall meet as needed to complete the tasks outlined in Section 2 of this resolution and as may be further detailed in the approved work plan Section 24 All meetings of the CAC shall be subject to all requirements of the Washington Open Public Meetings Act and shall be open to the public and shall be held at a public place 5 2 All meeting dates and terms shall be posted consistent with adopted County and City policies No meeting shall be scheduled without a t least 48 hours notice to the County and City Clerk s offices 5 3 Except as modified by these rules of procedure the CAC rules of procedure shall be guided by Robert s Rules of Order Newly Revised 101h Edition Perseus Publishing as the same may be amended or updated Section 6 Attendance and Alternates 6 1 To achieve its greatest effect the CAC will meet with the regular attendance of its members at most meetings the CAC benefits greatly from full participation of each member 6 2 In light of this CAC members are expected and required to notify the chair of anticipated absence from any meeting of the CAC as far in advance of the meeting as possible In the event that such notifications indicate that a quorum will not be present the chair will ordinarily cancel or reschedule the meeting 6 3 If a member is absent for three 3 consecutive regular meetings without excuse or absent for thirty five percent 35 of all meetings including committee meetings in any six 6 month period the member s record of attendance may be forwarded to the Mayor and the Chair of the BoCC for consideration of removal in accordance with RCW 35 63 030 Page 3 of 6 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 240 Joint County City Resolution re Climate Action Committee 64 If the CAC determines a need it will recognize an appropriate designated alternate in the event of a member s absence An appropriately designated alternate will have been recommended by the CAC and approved by the Board of County Commissioners and City Council In the event of that member s absence the alternate can exercise the voting privilege of the seat that he she represents Section 7 Quorum Voting 7 1 The decision making approach of the CAC will be by consensus If consensus cannot be reached the CAC will require a 2 3 majority vote Any dissenting opinions will be recorded and included in the meeting summary 7 2 A simple majority of the total of the members currently appointed to CAC shall constitute a quorum for the conduct of CAC business No meeting shall occur unless a majority plus one of the appointed CAC members are present Voting is by voice vote except where these rules or the CAC itself may require a roll call vote Section 8 Conflicts of Interest 8 1 Conflicts of interest will rarely arise as a matter of concern for CAC members however in the discussion or recommendation of funding proposals for CAC projects it is possible that a conflict or the appearance of a conflict may arise When a conflict or appearance of conflict may arise applicable state county and city policies regarding Appearance of Fairness shall apply Section 9 Order of Business Meeting Procedure 9 1 Call to order roll call and determination of quorum 9 2 Agenda items 9 2 1 Minutes of previous meeting 9 2 2 Old business 9 2 3 New business 9 24 Discussions of next meeting date and agenda 9 2 5 General Announcements 9 2 6 Community Member Comments 9 2 7 Adjournment 9 3 The chair may alter the regular order of business in preparing the agenda when special circumstances and the efficient use of time dictate 9 4 All meetings of the CAC shall be conducted pursuant to the Open Public Meetings Act as codified in RCW 42 30 as the same may be amended or updated Section 10 Minutes and Records 10 1 Findings and recommendations etc of the CAC are prepared at the direction of the chair Copies will be provided to all CAC members in a timely manner for review and approval at the next regular CAC meeting 10 2 The CAC shall provide for the taking of minutes and maintaining the records of all meetingsCommitteeminutesshallbefiledwiththeCountyandCityClerksofficeswithin10daysof approval Page 4 of 6 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 241 Joint County City Resolution re Climate Action Committee Section 11 Term of Committee Sunset Provision CAC shall formally end within three years from the date of adoption of this Resolution unless otherwise extended by ordinance or resolution or by written permission from the County Director of the Department of Community Development Section 12 Communications to the Board of County Commissioners and City Council The Committee shall report to the Board of County Commissioners and Port Townsend City Council at least semi annually Section 13 Compensation and Reimbursement of Expenses Members of CAC shall serve without compensation Section 14 Amending Rules 14 1 CAC may recommend amendments to these rules at any meeting by a vote of the majority of the entire membership provided five 5 days notice has been given to each CAC member 14 2 CAC is a joint county city committee and thus the two government entities agree to maintain consistency by processing any amendments hereto as Joint Resolutions requiring approval by both entities This resolution shall become effective upon adoption by the Board of County Commissioners and the City of Port Townsend APPROVED AND SIGNED THIS 7th day of January 2008 JEFFERSON COUNTY BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS SEAL 1 v SJf t V l M t 1 Jr i 1 Phil JQ nson Ch Dat J a5 i ltz A r JoHn Austin Member U Attest gJu em G lie Matthes CMC Deputy Clerk of the Board Approved as to Form f lllvJ aalJrrtK 13 09 David Alvarez Deputy Civil Prosecuting Attorney Page 5 of 6 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 242 Joint County City Resolution re Climate Action Committee APPROVED AND SIGNED THIS 114 day of JaHCAOtfl 2008 Michelle Sandoval Mayor Attest9 City Clerk Approved as to form John P Watts City Attorney Page 6 of 6 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 243 Appendix C. CO2e Forecasts and Targets Backcast Base Year Category      Sectors/Subsector   1990 2005 2012 2020 2030 2050 Community Stationary Energy   Residential 86827 121605 131487 143936 168974 261127   Commercial       32902 49017 53868 60012 74893 114641   Industrial                         225665 154511 154511 154511 154511 154511 Stationary Subtotal  345394 325133 339866 358459 398378 530279 Rate of Change from previous milestone 1.05 1.05 1.11 1.33 Transportation      175697 209079 228455 256018 319449 488989 Rate of Change from previous milestone 1.09 1.12 1.25 1.53  Solid Waste                  1777 2502 2831 3261 3823 5852 Rate of Change from previous milestone 1.13 1.15 1.17 1.53 Community Total 522868 536714 571154 617738 721650 1025120 Rate of Change from previous milestone 1.06 1.08 1.17 1.42 Jefferson County Gov't   Stationary Energy       1025 1443 1508 1591 1768 2353 Transportation             1340 1886 2061 2309 2882 4411 Solid Waste         25 35 40 46 53 82 Water           259 364 412 474 556 851 Jefferson County Total    2648 3728 4021 4420 5259 7698 City of Port Townsend  Stationary Energy        573 807 844 890 989 1316  Transportation            379 533 582 653 814 1247                                       Water/Sewage     570 802 907 1045 1225 1876                                                               City of Port Townsend Total   1522 2142 2333 2588 3029 4439 Population Data/Estimates 20406 28724 32500 37427 43858 55656 Greenhouse Gas Emissions in tons of CO2e Forecasts, assuming current practices Notes on calculation methods   Draft 4‐29‐11 For both backcast and forecasts, the method was to apply the annual percentage change from the base year of 2005 for any given year in  the Jefferson county population to the various inputs in the Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) software.  For each period, this annual percentage change was applied to the following inputs: Residential:  Electrical usage and number of households   Commercial:  Electrical usage, propane usage, floor area, number  of employees and number of establishments Transportation: Gasoline and diesel usage Waste: Total tons CO2e The annual percentage population changes used were: 1990 – 2005 2.31% 2005 – 2012 1.78% 2005 – 2020  1.78% 2005 – 2030  1.71% 2005 ‐2050  1.90% For the industrial backcast an estimate of the reduction of Port Townsend Paper from 1990 to 2005 of about 32% was used basedon the  information supplied by Kristin Marshall and Bruce McComas.  Thereafter, the future emissions were assumed to be constant based on the  assumption that the production of green house gas was not population dependent.  Stanley Willard These calculations were made at the community level.  The City and County Government Operations are a included in the Community  total.  The rate of change for a each subsector was applied to the known baseline inventory values for the City and County to determine  the forecast their respective subsectors.  Example:  Transportation CO2e increased 9% in the community between 2005 and 2012. City  Transportation in 2012 is calculated to be 582, reflecting a 9% increase over 2005. Deborah Stinson 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 244 Category  Sectors/Subsector                 ‐1990 ‐2005 2012 2020 2030 2050 Community    Stationary Energy    Residential                86827 121605 121605 99660 72228 17365    Commercial                       32902 49017 49017 40083 28915 6580                                 Industrial                     225665 154511 154511 131484 102700 45133                       Stationary Subtotal  345394 325133 325133 271227 203844 69079                          Transportation                 175697 209079 209079 172460 126687 35139                         Solid Waste                    1777 2502 2502 2050 1485 355                                                 Grand Total  522868 536714 536714 445737 332016 104574 Percent from 1990 0.03 0.03 ‐0.15 ‐0.37 ‐0.80 Jefferson County Gov't  Stationary Energy        1025 1443 1443 1182 857 205                                         Transportation          1340 1886 1886 1545 1120 268                                       Solid Waste         25 35 35 29 21 5                                       Water                     259 364 364 298 216 52 County Total 2648 3728 3728 3055 2213 530 Percent from 1990 0.41 0.41 0.15 ‐0.16 ‐0.80Percent from prev benchmark 0.41 0.00 ‐0.18 ‐0.28 ‐0.76 City of Port Townsend   Stationary Energy           573 807 807 661 479 115                                        Transportation       379 533 533 437 316 76 Water/Sewage      570 802 802 657 476 114 City Total 1522 2142 2142 1755 1272 304 Percent from 1990 0.41 0.41 0.15 -0.16 -0.80Percent from prev benchmark 0.41 0.00 -0.18 -0.28 -0.76 Calculation Notes Calculations by Stanley Willard 5-23-11 Targets for Future GHG Emissions Greenhouse Gas Emissions in tons of CO2e This version of Targets treats each SubSector separately with 2050 being 20% of what was Backcast for that particular category. The Targets for 2020 and 2030 are simply proportioned from the reduction between 2012 and 2050 according to the number of years. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 ‐1990‐2005 2012 2020 2030 2050 County City 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 Community Community 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 ‐ 1990 ‐ 2005 2012 2020 2030 2050 County City 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 ‐ 1990 ‐ 2005 2012 2020 2030 2050 Community 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 245 Appendix D. Potential Funding Sources The Resource Conservation Manager (RCM) is tasked with identifying funding for energy savings related to government operations. Savings on energy costs can then be directed toward other measures. In regards community-wide emissions, stay in touch with ICLEI - they have several recommendations for where to turn when municipal resources fall short such as: • Local utilities should invest in energy conservation and offer rebates and other incentives for residential and commercial energy consumption. • Assistance through federal and state programs - ICLEI’s program staff can help connect city and county liaisons to resources at the state and national level to provide opportunities for obtaining financial and technical assistance available to local governments. • Energy service corporations (ESCOs) ESCOs finance energy improvements which are then paid back by the cost savings from reduced energy bills. These businesses encourage the implementation of energy-saving measures and may be valuable resources for technical assistance, financing, and program implementation. We’ll need to get creative – for example, - seek out partnerships for Education and Outreach like the 'partnership with non-profit' model implemented by Sustainable Connections, Bellingham & Whatcom WA. Another option is to look into funding for community outreach specifically, or even local economic development grants for business outreach (as opposed to just energy/environmental funding sources.) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 246 Appendix D. Potential Funding Sources Source What is eligible? Contact/Website Federal American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) Loan Program Low-interest loans (with an interest rate of 1%) to help pay for energy efficiency retrofits in municipal, residential, commercial, non-profit, and low-income housing facilities. Eligible projects include improving lighting systems, replacing streetlights or traffic signals LEDs, installing automated energy management systems/controls and building insulation, energy generation including renewable and combined heat and power projects, heating and air conditioning modifications and upgrading waste water treatment equipment. Swimming pools and golf courses are not eligible for funding under this program. http://www.energy.ca.gov/efficiency/financing/index.html. http://www.recovery.wa.gov/ EPA The Federal Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant program was created by the American Investment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009. http://www.dot.gov/recovery/ost/. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 247 Appendix D. Potential Funding Sources DOT TIGER II – HUD Community Challenge Planning Grant) VMT Reduction Strategy - to develop and implement a regional strategy to reduce vehicle miles traveled and plan for a more sustainable transportation system across the North Olympic Peninsula. Grants and Budget Division HUD's Office of Sustainable Housing and Communities Phone: 202-402-7683 Zuleika Morales-Romero, Director zuleika.k.morales@hud.gov. State Funding Washington State Department of General Administration (GA) Retrofit government buildings for energy efficiency Local Government/Utility Electricity Provider Incentives for conservation and renewable energy , rebate programs for lighting, insulation, LEDs, high-efficiency HVAC equipment, etc. Non-Governmental Organizations American Forests Global ReLeaf Grant Program Forest conservation/ tree planting projects in urban and natural areas. http://www.americanforests.org/global_releaf/. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 248 Appendix E Worksheets – Proposed Actions for Government Operations 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 249 Actions Estimated  Annual GHG  Reductions  (CO2e Tons) Estimated  Cost  Recovery (Years)  Sector City of Port Townsend Buildings 657 Transportation 175  Total Estimated GHG Reduction 832 833 percent toward 2020 Goal 100% Jefferson County Buildings 1,326 Transportation 164 Waste 0 Total Estimated GHG Reduction 1,490 1,366 percent toward Goal 109% Combined GHG  Reduction Goal  (CO2e Tons) Combined Estimated GHG Reduction 2,322 2,198 Percent toward 2020 Goal 106% County  GHG Reduction  Goal (CO2e Tons) 2020 Goals, Objectives and Actions  Governments Leading by Example Objectives Annual GHG  Reduction Goal  (Difference between  FORECAST and  TARGET emissions) City GHG Reduction  Goal (CO2e Tons) Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15   Gov Overview   11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 250 CO2e (metric tons) SectorActionsEstimated CostEst Annual SavingsPayback Years CAPPA Worksheet Notes ‐ Please see numbered worksheets for details320 Building 1.14 $6,000 $0 n/a Green Energy Cost is annual ‐ fixed as proposed118 Building 1.1 $12,500 $27,230 0.46 Green Building Library and Mountain View112 Building 1.4 $124,500 $25,863 4.81 Retrofits RCM Estimates merged with CAPPA43 Building 1.9 $24,750 $9,937 2.49 LED Streetlight Replace only, already optimized for number40 Building 1.13 $800 $9,200Green Business Green Business in 8 Departments24 Building 1.6 $100,000 $5,475 18.26 Solar PVRCM estimates run through CAPPA0 Building 1.8 $0 $0Lighting Retrofits Do not include, most already switched (pre inventory)61Transport 1.7 $1,000 $25,749 0.04 Truck  Idling 1.7 combines truck & LV idling40 Transport E‐CarsExisting Electric Cars22 Transport 1.5 $0 $103,500 0.00 Small Vehicles Cost previously budgeted (replacement schedule)14 Transport 1.10 $6,250 $5,806 1.08 Carpool14 Transport 1.2 $23,750 $5,806 4.09 Telecommute11 Transport 1.3 $30,000 $5,889 5.09 Electric Vehicles9 Transport E‐Meters $5,000 $3,475 1.44Existing Remote Water Meters4 Transport 1.7 $1,000 $35,000 0.03 Light Vehicle Idling 1.7 combines truck & LV idling832 Governments Leading by Example Action AreaPrioritized Actions for City of Port TownsendAs Generated by CAPPA and Refined by RCM with Maximum Green EnergyAppendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  City Plan   11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 251 CO2e (metric tons) SectorActionsEstimated CostEst Annual SavingsPayback Years CAPPA Worksheet Notes ‐ Please see numbered worksheets for details967 Building 1.14 $13,500 $0 n/a Green Energy Cost is annual ‐ incremental per kWh188 Building 1.4 $279,000 $43,468 6.42 Retrofits RCM Estimates run through CAPPA124 Building 1.13 $2,500 $28,750 0.09 Green Business Green Business in 25 County Departments47 Building 1.6 $200,000 $10,950 18.26 Solar PVRCM estimates run through CAPPA0 Building 1.1 $0 $0Green Building No new construction anticipated ‐ RCM0 Building 1.8 $0 $0Lighting Retrofits Do not include, most already switched (pre inventory)0Building 1.9 $0 $0Streetlight LED None (too few)  for County ‐RCM54 Transport 1.2 $23,750 $23,157 1.03 Telecommute42 Transport 1.7 $1,000 $22,163 0.05 Truck & LV  Idling 1.7 combines truck & LV idling CAPPA worksheets28 Transport 1.5 $0 $103,500 0.00 Small Vehicles Cost previously budgeted23 Transport 1.10 $18,750 $9,610 1.95 Carpool7 Transport 1.3 $20,000 $3,926 5.09 Electric Vehicles6 Transport E‐4day $0 $48,244 0.00 Telecommute Existing 20 employees w/20% reduced commute4 Transport E‐Zenn ? $6,758 0.00 Electric Vehicles Existing 1 Taurus replaced by ZENN0 Waste 1.12 $0 $0DigesterCity Only1,490 Governments Leading by Example Action AreaPrioritized Actions for Jefferson CountyAs Generated by CAPPA and Refined by RCM with Maximum Green EnergyAppendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  County Plan  11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 252 Category Sectors/Subsector                 ‐1990‐2005 2012 2020 2030 2050Community    Stationary Energy   Residential                86827 121605 121605 99660 72228 17365   Commercial                       32902 49017 49017 40083 289156580                                Industrial                     22566515451115451113148410270045133                      Stationary Subtotal  345394 325133 325133 271227 203844 69079                         Transportation                 175697 209079 209079 172460 126687 35139                        Solid Waste                    17772502250220501485355                                                Grand Total  522868 536714 536714 445737 332016 104574Percent from 19900.03 0.03‐0.15‐0.37‐0.80Jefferson County Gov't  Stationary Energy        1025 1443 14431182 857205                                        Transportation          1340 1886 18861545 1120 268                                      Solid Waste         25 35 3529 21 5                                      Water                     25936436429821652County Total 2648 3728 3728 3055 2213 530Percent from 19900.41 0.41 0.15‐0.16‐0.80Percent from prev benchmark0.41 0.00‐0.18‐0.28‐0.76City of Port Townsend   Stationary Energy           573 807 807661 479115                                       Transportation       379 533 533437 31676Water/Sewage      570802802657476114City Total 1522 2142 2142 1755 1272 304Percent from 19900.41 0.41 0.15 -0.16 -0.80Percent from prev benchmark0.41 0.00 -0.18 -0.28 -0.76Calculation NotesCalculations by Stanley Willard 5-23-11Targets for Future GHG EmissionsGreenhouse Gas Emissions in tons of CO2eThis version of Targets treats each SubSector separately with 2050 being 20% of what was Backcast for that particular category. The Targets for 2020 and 2030 are simply proportioned from the reduction between 2012 and 2050 according to the number of years. 05001000150020002500300035004000‐1990‐2005 2012 2020 2030 2050CountyCityCommunity0100000200000300000400000500000600000‐1990‐20052012202020302050Community01000200030004000‐1990‐2005 2012 2020 20302050CountyCity0100000200000300000400000500000600000‐1990‐2005 2012 2020 20302050CommunityPerpared by Stanley Willard 3‐24‐1112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 253 Backcast Base YearCategory     Sectors/Subsector   1990 2005 2012 2020 2030 2050Community Stationary Energy  Residential86827 121605 131487 143936 168974 261127  Commercial       32902 49017 53868 60012 74893 114641  Industrial                         225665154511154511154511154511154511Stationary Subtotal  345394 325133 339866 358459 398378 530279Rate of Change from previous milestone1.05 1.05 1.11 1.33Transportation      175697 209079 228455 256018 319449 488989Rate of Change from previous milestone1.09 1.12 1.25 1.53 Solid Waste                  177725022831326138235852Rate of Change from previous milestone1.13 1.15 1.17 1.53Community Total 522868 536714 571154 617738 721650 1025120Rate of Change from previous milestone1.06 1.08 1.17 1.42Jefferson County Gov't   Stationary Energy       1025 1443 1508 1591 1768 2353Transportation             1340 1886 2061 2309 2882 4411Solid Waste         25 3540 46 53 82Water           259364412474556851Jefferson County Total    2648 3728 4021 4420 5259 7698City of Port Townsend  Stationary Energy        573 807 844 890 989 1316 Transportation            379 533582 653 814 1247                                      Water/Sewage     570802907104512251876                                                              City of Port Townsend Total   1522 2142 2333 2588 3029 4439Population Data/Estimates20406 28724 32500 37427 43858 55656Greenhouse Gas Emissions in tons of CO2eForecasts, assuming current practicesNotes on calculation methods   Draft 4‐29‐11 For both backcast and forecasts, the method was to apply the annual percentage change from the base year of 2005 for any given year in the Jefferson county population to the various inputs in the Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) software.  For each period, this annual percentage change was applied to the following inputs: Residential:  Electrical usage and number of households                         Commercial:  Electrical usage, propane usage, floor area, number  of employees and number of establishments Transportation: Gasoline and diesel usage Waste: Total tons CO2e  The annual percentage population changes used were:1990 – 2005 2.31%2005 – 2012 1.78%2005 – 2020  1.78%2005 – 2030  1.71%2005 ‐  2050  1.90% For the industrial backcast an estimate of the reduction of Port Townsend Paper from 1990 to 2005 of about 32% was used based on the information supplied by Kristin Marshall and Bruce McComas.  Thereafter, the future emissions were assumed to be constant based on the assumption that the production of green house gas was not population dependent.  Stanley WillardThese calculations were made at the community level.  The City and County Government Operations are a included in the Community total.  The rate of change for a each subsector was applied to the known baseline inventory values for the City and County to determine the forecast their respective subsectors.  Example:  Transportation CO2e increased 9% in the community between 2005 and 2012.  City Transportation in 2012 is calculated to be 582, reflecting a 9% increase over 2005.Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15   Forecast         11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 254 Category  Sectors/Subsector                2012 2020 2030 2050 Community    Stationary Energy    Residential                9882 44276 96746 243762    Commercial                       4851 19929 45978 108061                                 Industrial                     0 23027 51811 109378                       Stationary Subtotal  14733 87232 194534 461200                          Transportation                 19376 83558 192762 453850                         Solid Waste                    329 1211 2338 5497                                                 Grand Total  34438 172001 389634 920546 Jefferson County Gov't  Stationary Energy        65 409 911 2148                                         Transportation          175 764 1762 4143                                       Solid Waste         5173377                                       Water                     48 176 340 800 County Total 293 1366 3046 7168 City of Port Townsend   Stationary Energy           37 228 510 1202                                        Transportation       49 216 498 1171 Water/Sewage      105 388 749 1762 City Total 191 833 1757 4134 GHG Reduction(in tons of CO2e) Needed to Reach Targets Forecast Emissions minus Target Emmissions Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  Reductions   11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 255 CO2e Projections & Targets ‐ County & City Operations01000200030004000500060007000800090001990 2005 2012 2020 2030 2050CO2e0100002000030000400005000060000County PopulationPopulationCounty ProjectionCounty TargetCity ProjectionCity Target12/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 256 1990 2005 2012 2020 2030 2050 Population 20406 28724 32500 37427 43858 55656 County Projection 2648 3728 4021 4420 5259 7698 County Target 2648 3728 3728 3055 2213 530 City Projection 1522 2142 2333 2588 3029 4439 City Target 1522 2142 2142 1755 1272 304 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 257 Worksheet ActionLeadCost Recovery (Years)CO2e (metric tons)1.14Purchase Green Energy from the gridCounty Administratorn/a 3201.1Build all new City & County buildings and develop sites to at least a LEED Silver criterion, or some other third‐party certification of energy, water and waste conservation strategies (e.g., Architecture 2030)City Council and Public Works0.46 1181.4Conduct energy audits for each city or county owned buildings and infrastructure to develop and implement a plan to reduce energy consumption.RCM4.81 1121.9Convert Streetlights to LED Public Works2.49 431.13Set goals for government departments and encourage all local businesses to become certified by the Green Business program of Jefferson County HealthRCM & County Env. Health401.6Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for stand‐alone lighting on streets and in parks, where appropriate and productiveRCM & Public Works18.26241.7Establish a reduced idling policy for all government vehicles (heavy trucks)Dept. Heads, Fleet Mgr & CAC0.04 61E‐CarsMore efficient fleet and use of vehiclesFleet Manager401.5Replace low‐efficiency and high‐emission vehicles with fuel‐efficient & low‐emission vehicles, like plug‐in hybrids, as soon as possibleFleet Managers & Dept. Heads0.00221.10Create incentives for employees to reduce emissions in their daily commuteDept. Heads1.08 14City of Port TownsendGovernment OperationsAppendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  City CAP   11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 258 1.2Implement vehicle trip reduction policy incorporating teleconferencing, telecommuting and alternative work schedules, where practical. Establish video and/or web conferencing capabilities in all major City and County facilitiesDept. Heads4.09 141.3Use electric vehicles or bicycles whenever possible (e.g., for meter reading and building inspection)CAC & Fleet Manager5.09 11E‐MetersReplace all the water meters with remote read meters. About 400 of the total 5,000 are already remote read.Public Works1.44 91.7Establish a reduced idling policy for all government vehicles (light vehicles)Fleet Managers & Dept. Heads0.03 4832Total Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (100% of 2020 goal)Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  City CAP   11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 259 Proposed Actions for City OperationsCO2e (metric tons)Stationary SourcesPurchase Green Energy from the grid320New City buildings &  sites developed w/certification 118Energy Audits and Conservation 112Convert Streetlights to LED 43City Departments Green Business Certified40Photovoltaic panels where appropriate & productive24Transportation SourcesReduced idling policy for all City vehicles65Existing ‐ More efficient fleet and use of vehicles40Replace vehicles with fuel‐efficient & low‐emission vehicles22Employee commute incentives14e‐government, telecommuting, alternative work schedules14Use electric vehicles or bicycles 11Existing & projected ‐ Remote read water meters9832City of Port TownsendGovernment OperationsTotal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (13% above 2020 goal)Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  City CAP Pres   11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 260 Worksheet ActionLeadCost Recovery (Years)CO2e (metric tons)1.14Purchase Green Energy from the gridBuildingn/a 9671.4Conduct energy audits for each city or county owned buildings and infrastructure to develop and implement a plan to reduce energy consumption.RCM6.42 1881.13Set goals for government departments and encourage all local businesses to become certified by the Green Business program of Jefferson County HealthRCM & County Env. Health0.091241.6Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for stand‐alone lighting on streets and in parks, where appropriate and productiveRCM & Public Works18.26 471.2Implement vehicle trip reduction policy incorporating teleconferencing, telecommuting and alternative work schedules, where practical. Establish video and/or web conferencing capabilities in all major City and County facilitiesDept Heads1.03 541.7Establish a reduced idling policy for all government vehicles Dept. Heads, Fleet Mgr & CAC0.05 421.5Replace low‐efficiency and high‐emission vehicles with fuel‐efficient & low‐emission vehicles, like plug‐in hybrids, as soon as possibleFleet Manager & Dept Heads0.00 281.10Create incentives for employees to reduce emissions in their daily commuteDept Heads1.95 231.3Use electric vehicles or bicycles whenever possible (e.g., for meter reading and building inspection)CAC & Fleet Manager5.09 7E‐4dayTelecommuteTransport0.00 6E‐ZennElectric VehiclesTransport0.00 41,490Jefferson CountyGovernment OperationsTotal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (109% of 2020 goal)Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  County CAP  11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 261 Proposed Actions for County OperationsCO2e (metric tons)Stationary SourcesPurchase Green Energy from the grid967Energy Audits and Conservation 188County Departments Green Business Certified124Photovoltaic panels where appropriate & productive47Transportation Sourcese‐government, telecommuting, alternative work schedules54Reduced idling policy for all County vehicles42Replace vehicles with fuel‐efficient & low‐emission vehicles28Employee commute incentives23Use electric vehicles or bicycles 7Existing ‐ 4‐day work week6Existing ‐ Electric Vehicles41,490Jefferson CountyGovernment OperationsTotal Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction (9% above 2020 goal)Appendix E ‐ CAC_CAP_GOV #15  County CAP Pres  11/23/201112/11/2019 PC Agenda PacketPg. 262 Appendix F Portland Climate Action Now’s, Climate-friendly Actions At Home & For Your Business 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 263 Between driving, heating, cooling and powering our homes, Portland residents are responsible for about 50 percent of all local carbon emissions — and that’s without counting the contribution of all the things we buy. At a national level, the production and distribution of goods amounts to another 38 percent of carbon emissions. Climate-friendly Actions at Home Most of these actions can be done in less than 20 minutes, for less than $20. Why wait? TAKE ACTION TODAY!NEXT STEPS...START PLANNING FOR CHANGE. Some changes take time and planning. Start thinking about these goals now. With just a little set up time, you can get your household on the right track.GETTING STARTEDBUILDINGS & ENERGYCONSUMPTION& SOLID WASTEFOOD, AGRICULTURE& URBAN FORESTRYMOBILITYCalculate your carbon footprint. Quick: www.footprintnetwork.org Thorough: www.epa.gov/climatechange/ emissions/ind_calculator.html Save energy and costs: replace incandescent light bulbs with efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFL). www.18seconds.org Plug your microwave, stereo, chargers, television and computer equipment into power strips that can be shut off when not in use. Turn down your thermostat three degrees (or 66°F daytime and 55°F night time). If you have air conditioning, turn up your air conditioner three degrees. Maintain your car: properly inflate tires and keep it tuned up for efficient driving. Visit a local farmers market to purchase fresh, local produce: www.portlandfarmersmarket.org Reduce the number of times you eat beef and pork each week. Use native species and wildlife attracting plants in landscaping your yard. Plant a vegetable garden or more trees: Portland Parks and Recreation, Community Gardens: 503-823-1612 www.portlandonline.com/parks Friends of Trees: : 503-282-8846 www.friendsoftrees.org Recycle right: recycle all paper, metal and glass, as well as yogurt tubs and other plastics accepted at curbside: 503-823-7202 www.portlandonline.com/bps/carts Paper or plastic? No thanks! Take reusable bags with you every time you go shopping. Shift daily trips to walking, bicycling, transit and carpooling to reduce driving. www.portlandonline.com/transportation Compost food scraps in your backyard: www.oregonmetro.gov Shop Local: visit neighborhood shops and keep your dollars in Portland: www.portlandisbettertogether.com Buy the most fuel-efficient vehicle that meets your needs. If your household has more than one car, try to eliminate a car and borrow or share a second vehicle when you need one. Be a smart consumer: • Make a list. • Cross off any items that can be rented, purchased used or borrowed instead. • Buy long-lasting, durable goods. Create a “carbon budget” for your household: identify areas where you can cut back. Set up a free home energy review with Energy Trust of Oregon: 866-968-7878 www.energytrust.org Get a free water conservation kit from the Portland Water Bureau: 503-823-7439 www.portlandonline.com/water/ conservationkits Buy clean energy from your utilities: PGE: 503-228-6322 www.portlandgeneral.com Pacific Power: 1-800-869-3717 www.pacificpower.net NW Natural: 1-800-422-4012 www.nwnatural.com Make a plan to reduce your carbon emissions by 5 percent every year. Fully insulate your home and seal ducts. Replace your furnace and home appliances with ENERGY STAR models that qualify for Oregon tax credits: www.oregon.gov/ENERGY When planning a home renovation project, call the Green Building Hotline for expert advice. 503-823-5431 www.buildgreen411.com Install solar water heating or a solar electric system on your home: 1-877-546-8769 www.solarnoworegon.org www.portlandonline.com/bps/Climate 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 264 Follow the five easy steps to setting up a successful workplace recycling system: www.recycleatwork.com/portland Minimize energy use when your building is unoccupied: Turn off all lights and computers each evening and turn back heating/ cooling settings at night with a programmable thermostat. Convert all incandescent lights to compact fluorescent lights (CFL). Upgrade old T12 lights to T8 lights. If electricity fees are included in your lease, purchase renewable energy credits: www.green-e.org/gogreene.shtml Buy clean energy from your utilities: PGE: 503-228-6322 www.portlandgeneral.com Pacific Power: 1-800-869-3717 www.pacificpower.net NW Natural: 1-800-422-4012 www.nwnatural.com Add occupancy sensors to infrequently used areas like bathrooms and storage rooms. Attend a free workshop to learn more about solar electric or solar water heating for your business: www.solaroregon.org/workshops Create an office policy that requires ENERGY STAR certification for new equipment, like computers, printers and refrigerators. www.energystar.gov Install solar panels on your building: www.solarnoworegon.org Encourage employees to drive less and save more: www.drivelesssavemore.com Ask employees what would make it possible for them to commute without driving alone. Reduce corporate air travel by substituting web-conferencing or encouraging travel by train: www.webconferencing-test.com Offer employees pre-tax transit passes. Provide information on nearby bus routes, bike parking and carpooling options: www.trimet.org www.tinyurl.com/pdxbikeparking www.carpoolmatchnw.org Offer incentives for employees to bike, walk, bus or carpool to work; consider $30 per month cash or two extra vacation days per year. Offer employees telecommuting options. Locate your business near transit facilities. Provide secure bike parking. Remove or significantly reduce free or subsidized parking for employees. Offer employees a car-sharing membership for transportation needs during the day: www.zipcar.com Contact the BEST Business Center for a free evaluation of your business operations. Receive ideas on how to reduce energy usage, save money and shrink your carbon footprint. www.bestbusinesscenter.org Create a green team: Write a sustainability plan and keep it fresh: review and evaluate success on a regular basis. Host annual employee sustainability education and engagement events. Become a Portland Climate Champion: www.bestbusinesscenter.org/ recognition Create a sustainable purchasing strategy for your workplace: identify products that contain recycled content or those that can be easily recycled at the end of use. Cut your waste in half. Identify products that don’t need to be consumed, used, disposed or recycled. Climate-friendly Actions for Your Business GETTING STARTEDBUILDINGS & ENERGYCONSUMPTION& SOLID WASTEMOBILITYDid you know that the commercial sector accounts for 25 percent of the total volume of carbon emissions? And that’s not counting carbon produced by employee commuting habits. Take action at work and you’ll not only being doing your part to slow climate change; you’ll also save money, conserve resources and enhance your reputation. Most of these actions can be done in less than 20 minutes, for less than $20. Why wait? Some changes take time and planning. Start thinking about these goals now. With just a little set up time, you can get your business on the right track. TAKE ACTION TODAY!NEXT STEPS...START PLANNING FOR CHANGE. 2 009-10 Recycle at WorkCertified City of Portland www.portlandonline.com/bps/Climate 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 265 Appendix G CAC Complete List of Prioritized Ideas for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Measures 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 266 Climate Action Committee Prioritized Ideas for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Measures DRAFT February 25, 2009 Not Recommended for Adoption - This list has not been endorsed by the CAC. It is merely intended to be a starting point for further refinement. The list is comprised of ideas brainstormed during CAC meetings and ideas submitted by government staff and the general public. Some of the ideas may not be practical, feasible or desirable. This list shows an initial attempt to prioritize the ideas using a crude scale of general feasibility and benefit, and i is anticipated that the document will be further modified. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 267 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures i Table of Contents Process Description ..................................................................................1  Section 1 - City and County Government Operations and Businesses: Leading by Example..............................................................................2  Section 2 - Community-wide Transportation: Moving People and Goods More Efficiently .........................................................................6  Section 3 - Community-wide Stationary Sources: Energy Efficiency in Our Buildings, Homes, and Industries................................................8  Section 4 - Community-wide Land Use: Enhancing Compact, Walkable, and generally more Livable Neighborhoods...................10  Section 5 - Community-wide Waste Management: Re-use, Recycling, and Disposal........................................................................................12  Section 6 - Community-wide Education: Promoting Sustainability in K- 12 Schools, Community Colleges, Extension Service, and News Media ....................................................................................................13  12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 268 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 1 Process Description The Climate Action Committee met on February 25, 2009 to begin a process of prioritizing the list of potential actions gathered in each of six categories. They used a software product called Meetingworks to score the potential ideas. These committee members participated in the voting exercise: John Austin Taylor Beard/Nora Burnfield Richard Dandrige Jim Fritz Kees Kolff Denise Pranger Pete Raab Dana Roberts Stanley Willard The results presented here reflect the prioritization in each of six sections using two criteria (Benefit and Feasibility). Each table shows the average votes for each item for each criterion and a total of the two averages. The percentage indicated in each cell reflects the variability in the scores (a measure of agreement). The higher the percentage, the higher the disagreement. Each table reflects the entire list in the section as well as the “keepers” highlighted in light blue. At the end of the table results, there is a Keeper List by section. The Appendix contains all graphs so you can see the vote distribution for each idea on each criterion. Also, I included a “What If Scenario”, which shows a merged list of all of the keepers (top 25 ideas in light blue). 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 269 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 2 Section 1 - City and County Government Operations and Businesses: Leading by Example Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 1. Support sustainable forestry practices and protect existing trees, where appropriate. 4.22 (16%) 4.22 (13%) 8.44 2. Replace incandescent lights with compact fluorescent lights or LEDs in buildings and street lights. 4.22 (13%) 4.11 (20%) 8.33 3. Build all new buildings to at least a LEED Silver criterion (or a similar level in another green building standard). 4.44 (14%) 3.89 (18%) 8.33 4. Purchase fuel-efficient and/or alternative-fuel vehicles when available and suitable. 4.44 (14%) 3.78 (21%) 8.22 5. Renovate existing buildings to lessen energy consumption (e.g., insulation, windows), being mindful of Historic Preservation requirements when appropriate. 4.56 (14%) 3.44 (23%) 8.00 6. Install high-efficiency furnaces, variable-speed pumps and ultra-efficiency motors in all government facilities where replacement seems warranted. 4.33 (16%) 3.56 (21%) 7.89 7. Use electric-vehicle or bicycles for government functions whenever possible (e.g., meter reading, building inspection). 4.00 (23%) 3.89 (15%) 7.89 8. Phase out low-efficiency and high-emission vehicles as quickly as possible. 4.33 (21%) 3.56 (14%) 7.89 9. Regularly publish departmental carbon footprints and results of efforts to reduce them. 3.67 (19%) 4.22 (13%) 7.89 10. Establish a reduced idling policy for fleet vehicles. 3.44 (29%) 4.44 (14%) 7.88 11. Subsidize bus passes for employees. 3.89 (20%) 3.78 (16%) 7.67 12. Install heat pumps, air or geothermal, as a first choice for heating. 4.33 (13%) 3.33 (21%) 7.66 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 270 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 3 Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 13. Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for stand-alone lighting on streets and parks. 4.22 (16%) 3.44 (10%) 7.66 14. Research options for natural, wetland wastewater treatment, particularly in new urban growth areas. 3.89 (18%) 3.56 (21%) 7.45 15. Purchase products with the lowest possible energy footprint, including embedded energy in production and transportation as well as lifecycle costs. 3.67 (25%) 3.67 (19%) 7.34 16. Encourage teleconferencing for meetings. 3.78 (23%) 3.44 (19%) 7.22 17. Accept new, low-impact development ideas that are presented as "demonstration projects." 3.67 (19%) 3.44 (17%) 7.11 18. Install software or power strips to ensure that computers and other electrical equipment is turned off when not in use. 3.00 (27%) 4.00 (16%) 7.00 19. Accept pervious paving methods for storm water management without requiring construction of duplicate "traditional" storm water system. 3.33 (23%) 3.56 (21%) 6.89 20. Develop alternative work schedules for employees, including a 4-day workweek for government operations. 3.56 (14%) 3.11 (24%) 6.67 21. Use electronic rather than paper-based communication when possible, including "paperless" meetings. 3.11 (24%) 3.56 (19%) 6.67 22. Perform regular route-efficiency analyses for routine routes for waste pickup, mail delivery, transit, police rounds, mill deliveries, etc. 3.44 (19%) 3.22 (23%) 6.66 23. Subsidize vanpools for employees if deemed cost effective. 3.44 (23%) 3.22 (16%) 6.66 24. Develop policies for inter-departmental car sharing and for using the most energy-efficient vehicle for the job. 3.33 (25%) 3.33 (13%) 6.66 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 271 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 4 Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 25. Use double-sided printing for all documents when possible. 2.33 (28%) 4.22 (16%) 6.55 26. Form an internal committee to oversee the implementation of a comprehensive energy conservation plan for each department or business. 3.00 (19%) 3.44 (21%) 6.44 27. Support the development of an energy-efficient community swimming pool. 3.22 (28%) 3.11 (24%) 6.33 28. Encourage telecommuting for employees. 3.00 (23%) 3.33 (23%) 6.33 29. Invest in "green power," carbon offsets, and/or other renewable energy developments. 3.33 (21%) 3.00 (23%) 6.33 30. Install wind turbines on public property, where appropriate. 3.44 (19%) 2.78 (21%) 6.22 31. Replace inefficient pumps or modify how they are used in order to increase their efficiency. 3.11 (26%) 3.11 (22%) 6.22 32. Adjust shipping schedules and capacities to reduce vehicle-miles traveled. 3.22 (18%) 2.89 (11%) 6.11 33. Promote the installation and use of composting toilets. 3.00 (21%) 3.11 (22%) 6.11 34. Assure that software allows screen review of requested reports before printing. 2.00 (19%) 4.00 (23%) 6.00 35. Install roundabouts rather than new traffic signals, when possible. 3.00 (25%) 2.78 (21%) 5.78 36. Prohibit use of public funds for purchase of water in single-use plastic bottles, 3.00 (27%) 2.56 (32%) 5.56 37. Give bidding preference to contractors who use renewable fuels in their equipment. 2.78 (16%) 2.78 (18%) 5.56 38. Educate employee unions to the need for more efficient vehicles. 2.11 (22%) 3.44 (23%) 5.55 39. Install heat exchangers at public shower facilities. 2.56 (25%) 2.78 (18%) 5.34 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 272 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 5 Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 40. Have local neighborhoods adopt local parks to reduce park staff travel. 2.67 (27%) 2.22 (21%) 4.89 41. Reduce mowing of grass in parks. 1.78 (16%) 3.00 (28%) 4.78 42. Replace mowers with grazing animals for park lawn maintenance. 2.56 (23%) 2.22 (23%) 4.78 43. Modify the city potable water system to eliminate need for chlorinating water that goes to the PTPC (the Mill). 2.67 (23%) 2.11 (18%) 4.78 44. Celebrate the 4th of July without the use of fireworks. 2.33 (16%) 1.89 (20%) 4.22 45. Eliminate need to transport and store chlorine for city water by generating chlorine at the site of chlorination. 2.11 (20%) 2.11 (22%) 4.22 46. Prohibit electric vending machines on public property. 2.11 (24%) 2.11 (28%) 4.22 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 273 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 6 Section 2 - Community-wide Transportation: Moving People and Goods More Efficiently Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 1. Develop a Smart Trips program to promote public transportation, ride-sharing, walking and biking. 4.11 (22%) 4.00 (21%) 8.11 2. Increase funding for public transportation. 4.56 (14%) 3.44 (17%) 8.00 3. Develop a commuter-friendly transit plan and increase service where appropriate. 3.89 (18%) 3.78 (8%) 7.67 4. Promote use of fuel efficient, alternative-fuel and hybrid vehicles, including low-pollution scooters. 4.00 (23%) 3.56 (17%) 7.56 5. Provide electric vehicle recharging stations at government offices, in residential areas, and in commercial crossroads. 4.44 (14%) 3.00 (23%) 7.44 6. Increase bicycle-carrying capacity of buses by promoting portable bikes. 3.56 (23%) 3.78 (18%) 7.34 7. Implement existing City non-motorized transportation plan. 3.56 (17%) 3.67 (19%) 7.23 8. Adopt reduced-idling ordinance. 3.33 (23%) 3.89 (24%) 7.22 9. Build "complete streets" (including facilities for pedestrians and bicycles) on major arterials and other locations, where appropriate. 4.00 (19%) 3.22 (26%) 7.22 10. Institute parking fees in commercial centers, to encourage use of transit and other transportation modes. 3.78 (16%) 3.22 (25%) 7.00 11. Develop a bounty for retiring a high-emission vehicle. 3.67 (16%) 3.33 (19%) 7.00 12. Develop a comprehensive county-wide bicycle and pedestrian plan for all appropriate areas of the county. 3.11 (20%) 3.67 (21%) 6.78 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 274 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 7 Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 13. Establish a low-interest loan program for private initiatives that reduce energy consumption (e.g., vehicle emission-reduction devices) 3.44 (14%) 3.00 (19%) 6.44 14. Establish and consistently enforce policies for bicycle safety. 2.67 (21%) 3.67 (16%) 6.34 15. Implement a car/truck-sharing service. 3.44 (23%) 2.89 (20%) 6.33 16. Provide covered bicycle parking at commercial, school, and government buildings. 2.67 (23%) 3.56 (10%) 6.23 17. Use parking fees to discourage single occupancy vehicle travel, and financially support transit and non-motorized transportation options. 3.33 (13%) 2.89 (20%) 6.22 18. Tax parking areas as part of the "land improvements" for property tax calculations. 3.00 (21%) 2.67 (19%) 5.67 19. Retrofit diesel trucks with emission-reducing devices, 3.22 (23%) 2.44 (14%) 5.66 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 275 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 8 Section 3 - Community-wide Stationary Sources: Energy Efficiency in Our Buildings, Homes, and Industries Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 1. Provide incentives for installation of solar- photovoltaic, solar-thermal, geothermal, wind, and other renewable-energy systems. 4.44 (10%) 4.11 (18%) 8.55 2. Establish a low-interest loan program for private initiatives that reduce energy consumption (e.g., weatherization, furnace improvement, renewable energy). 4.44 (10%) 3.89 (26%) 8.33 3. Expand home-weatherization assistance programs for low-income residents. 4.22 (13%) 3.89 (11%) 8.11 4. Require use of a standardized green-building point-system (e.g., LEED, Built Green) for permitting of construction and remodeling projects. 4.44 (17%) 3.67 (23%) 8.11 5. Revise building codes to require greater insulation. 4.11 (15%) 3.67 (21%) 7.78 6. Encourage use of motion sensors for outdoor lighting. 3.44 (17%) 4.22 (18%) 7.66 7. Reduce total number of streetlights. 3.56 (19%) 3.89 (22%) 7.45 8. Use energy-saving lamps (e.g., led) for outdoor lighting. 3.78 (21%) 3.56 (14%) 7.34 9. Distribute "green building" advice booklets. 2.78 (21%) 4.56 (14%) 7.34 10. Eliminate unnecessary or overly bright outdoor lighting (e.g., "full cut-off" fixtures). 3.67 (13%) 3.56 (21%) 7.23 11. Promote energy auditing in homes and businesses. 3.67 (13%) 3.56 (17%) 7.23 12. Require sellers to provide current energy audit information to buyers before the sale of any building. 3.56 (14%) 3.56 (23%) 7.12 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 276 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 9 Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 13. Expedite building permits for projects that reach a prescribed level on the green-building point system. 3.78 (23%) 3.33 (21%) 7.11 14. Develop programs to improve, convert, or replace inefficient furnaces. 3.44 (19%) 3.33 (16%) 6.77 15. Implement a "Dark-Sky" ordinance to reduce nighttime energy use (prohibit lighting "trespass" by poorly directed fixtures). 3.33 (27%) 3.33 (19%) 6.66 16. Promote the use of efficient wood burning heating appliances. 3.33 (13%) 3.22 (16%) 6.55 17. Replace all two-stroke engines with four-stroke engines. 3.67 (27%) 2.78 (16%) 6.45 18. Provide information on carbon reduction strategies for homebuyers at real estate offices. 2.67 (21%) 3.67 (16%) 6.34 19. Revise building codes to allow for greater heights and reduced setbacks in projects seeking solar or wind access. 3.44 (19%) 2.89 (18%) 6.33 20. Eliminate use of gas-powered leaf blowers. 3.33 (28%) 2.67 (19%) 6.00 21. Create awards for businesses and developments with exemplary strategies for lowering GHG emissions. 2.33 (13%) 3.67 (23%) 6.00 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 277 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 10 Section 4 - Community-wide Land Use: Enhancing Compact, Walkable, and generally more Livable Neighborhoods Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 1. Promote townhouse, cluster and mixed-use development, encouraging density and multi- modal transportation options. 4.22 (18%) 4.11 (15%) 8.33 2. Create pedestrian and bicycle-friendly communities and commercial areas (e.g., trails, pathways, rights-of-way on pavement). 4.00 (25%) 3.67 (16%) 7.67 3. Promote urban density through code revisions for items such as setbacks, lot orientation, and, height restrictions, 3.89 (15%) 3.67 (25%) 7.56 4. Promote programs that offers carbon credits for timberlands. 3.78 (18%) 3.56 (23%) 7.34 5. Establish tree planting incentives for developments in locations where they do not block passive solar access, and disincentives for tree removal in established neighborhoods. 3.67 (19%) 3.67 (21%) 7.34 6. Promote the use of drought-tolerant native plants as well as tolerant non-natives. 3.11 (29%) 4.11 (20%) 7.22 7. Develop program for use of local produce in school menus. 3.33 (27%) 3.67 (21%) 7.00 8. Make farm produce stands an allowed use anywhere and not a conditional use only allowed in some zones and on certain types of streets. 3.44 (25%) 3.56 (23%) 7.00 9. Promote small and affordable housing by including surcharges on permits for residences greater than a specified size (e.g., 2400 square feet). 3.44 (21%) 3.56 (25%) 7.00 10. Encourage more street plantings and home garden plots through permitting process. 3.11 (26%) 3.67 (23%) 6.78 11. Restrict development on land that is ideally suited for agriculture. 3.67 (23%) 3.11 (18%) 6.78 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 278 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 11 Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 12. Encourage the planting of rain gardens and other "Low-Impact Development" techniques. 3.11 (22%) 3.67 (16%) 6.78 13. Support biogas production from manure. 3.44 (19%) 3.33 (13%) 6.77 14. Provide space for farmer's markets and produce stands. 3.00 (21%) 3.67 (23%) 6.67 15. Reduce and/or eliminate parking requirements for developments to encourage walkability, use of transit and other transportation modes. 3.22 (18%) 3.44 (17%) 6.66 16. Promote worm bins and composting systems for the food and yard debris diversion program as part of the state-wide Beyond Waste effort. 2.67 (23%) 3.78 (25%) 6.45 17. Support a cooperative "mobile meat processing plant" to provide for local processing. 3.00 (25%) 3.44 (21%) 6.44 18. Provide incentives for contractors to use pervious concrete/asphalt on new paving projects if it reduces the total amount of construction required. 3.11 (20%) 3.22 (21%) 6.33 19. Prohibit outdoor burning. 3.11 (20%) 3.00 (25%) 6.11 20. Develop in-school food production programs for student lunch menu. 3.00 (23%) 3.11 (18%) 6.11 21. Allow and promote the use of city rights-of-way for community gardens. 2.67 (16%) 3.33 (21%) 6.00 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 279 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 12 Section 5 - Community-wide Waste Management: Re-use, Recycling, and Disposal Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 1. Require waste recycling. 4.22 (23%) 3.78 (25%) 8.00 2. Encourage dis-assembly, deconstruction and recycling of structures to be demolished. 3.78 (16%) 4.11 (18%) 7.89 3. Promote adaptive reuse of historic or older buildings. 4.00 (21%) 3.78 (21%) 7.78 4. Develop a program for mandatory recycling of construction waste at all construction sites that take delivery of dumpsters. 3.78 (21%) 3.89 (20%) 7.67 5. Investigate wetland filtration systems as an alternative to traditional sewage treatment. 3.78 (16%) 3.78 (21%) 7.56 6. Publicize pick-up services for pre-cycling, recycling and trash. 3.11 (20%) 4.11 (15%) 7.22 7. Encourage reduced use of packaging, especially for building materials. 3.78 (21%) 3.44 (14%) 7.22 8. Promote neighborhood composting centers. 3.44 (25%) 3.78 (18%) 7.22 9. Ease restrictions on rainwater catchment systems. 3.22 (28%) 3.89 (18%) 7.11 10. Investigate wastewater reclamation strategies for users such as golf courses. 3.33 (21%) 3.67 (21%) 7.00 11. Establish compost credits for payment of yard waste tipping fees. 2.89 (11%) 3.67 (13%) 6.56 12. Establish a home pick-up pre-cycling program for items that might be reused. 3.00 (21%) 3.33 (16%) 6.33 13. Develop better incentives for small garbage containers via the rate structure for solid waste. 2.89 (20%) 3.11 (15%) 6.00 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 280 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 13 Section 6 - Community-wide Education: Promoting Sustainability in K-12 Schools, Community Colleges, Extension Service, and News Media Idea Benefit Feasibility Total 1. Publish articles and a regular newspaper column with information about sustainability. 2.89 (18%) 4.56 (14%) 7.45 2. Develop classes for clean energy, gardening, agriculture, sustainability skills. 3.56 (21%) 3.78 (16%) 7.34 3. Coordinate curriculum of sustainability course offerings at WSU, Peninsula College and other local schools. 2.89 (15%) 3.56 (21%) 6.45 4. Develop civics and environmental classes on sustainable practices at all levels of education, including offerings for adult learning. 3.11 (24%) 3.22 (18%) 6.33 5. Develop lists for student projects on sustainability. 2.33 (13%) 3.33 (16%) 5.66 6. Create banners and signs promoting sustainability programs. 1.67 (19%) 3.44 (30%) 5.11 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 281 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 14 Keeper List • Section 1 • 8.44 Support sustainable forestry practices and protect existing trees, where appropriate. • 8.33 Replace incandescent lights with compact fluorescent lights or LEDs in buildings and street lights. • 8.33 Build all new buildings to at least a LEED Silver criterion (or a similar level in another green building standard). • 8.22 Purchase fuel-efficient and/or alternative-fuel vehicles when available and suitable. • 8.00 Renovate existing buildings to lessen energy consumption (e.g., insulation, windows), being mindful of Historic Preservation requirements when appropriate. • 7.89 Use electric-vehicle or bicycles for government functions whenever possible (e.g., meter reading, building inspection). • 7.89 Regularly publish departmental carbon footprints and results of efforts to reduce them. • 7.89 Phase out low-efficiency and high-emission vehicles as quickly as possible. • 7.89 Install high-efficiency furnaces, variable-speed pumps and ultra- efficiency motors in all government facilities where replacement seems warranted. • 7.88 Establish a reduced idling policy for fleet vehicles. • 7.67 Subsidize bus passes for employees. • 7.66 Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for stand-alone lighting on streets and parks. • 7.66 Install heat pumps, air or geothermal, as a first choice for heating. • 7.45 Research options for natural, wetland wastewater treatment, particularly in new urban growth areas. • 7.34 Purchase products with the lowest possible energy footprint, including embedded energy in production and transportation as well as lifecycle costs. • 7.22 Encourage teleconferencing for meetings. • 7.11 Accept new, low-impact development ideas that are presented as "demonstration projects." • 7.00 Install software or power strips to ensure that computers and other electrical equipment is turned off when not in use. • Section 2 • 8.11 Develop a Smart Trips program to promote public transportation, ride-sharing, walking and biking. • 8.00 Increase funding for public transportation. • 7.67 Develop a commuter-friendly transit plan and increase service where appropriate. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 282 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 15 • 7.56 Promote use of fuel efficient, alternative-fuel and hybrid vehicles, including low-pollution scooters. • 7.44 Provide electric vehicle recharging stations at government offices, in residential areas, and in commercial crossroads. • 7.34 Increase bicycle-carrying capacity of buses by promoting portable bikes. • 7.23 Implement existing City non-motorized transportation plan. • 7.22 Build "complete streets" (including facilities for pedestrians and bicycles) on major arterials and other locations, where appropriate. • 7.22 Adopt reduced-idling ordinance. • 7.00 Develop a bounty for retiring a high-emission vehicle. • 7.00 Institute parking fees in commercial centers, to encourage use of transit and other transportation modes. • Section 3 • 8.55 Provide incentives for installation of solar-photovoltaic, solar-thermal, geothermal, wind, and other renewable-energy systems. • 8.33 Establish a low-interest loan program for private initiatives that reduce energy consumption (e.g., weatherization, furnace improvement, renewable energy). • 8.11 Require use of a standardized green-building point-system (e.g., LEED, Built Green) for permitting of construction and remodeling projects. • 8.11 Expand home-weatherization assistance programs for low-income residents. • 7.78 Revise building codes to require greater insulation. • 7.66 Encourage use of motion sensors for outdoor lighting. • 7.45 Reduce total number of streetlights. • 7.34 Distribute "green building" advice booklets. • 7.34 Use energy-saving lamps (e.g., led) for outdoor lighting. • 7.23 Promote energy auditing in homes and businesses. • 7.23 Eliminate unnecessary or overly bright outdoor lighting (e.g., "full cut- off" fixtures). • Section 4 • 8.33 Promote townhouse, cluster and mixed-use development, encouraging density and multi-modal transportation options. • 7.67 Create pedestrian and bicycle-friendly communities and commercial areas (e.g., trails, pathways, rights-of-way on pavement). • 7.56 Promote urban density through code revisions for items such as setbacks, lot orientation, and, height restrictions, • 7.34 Establish tree planting incentives for developments in locations where they do not block passive solar access, and disincentives for tree removal in established neighborhoods. • 7.34 Promote programs that offers carbon credits for timberlands. • 7.22 Promote the use of drought-tolerant native plants as well as tolerant non-natives. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 283 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 16 • 7.00 Promote small and affordable housing by including surcharges on permits for residences greater than a specified size (e.g., 2400 square feet). • 7.00 Make farm produce stands an allowed use anywhere and not a conditional use only allowed in some zones and on certain types of streets. • 7.00 Develop program for use of local produce in school menus. • Section 5 • 8.00 Require waste recycling. • 7.89 Encourage dis-assembly, deconstruction and recycling of structures to be demolished. • 7.78 Promote adaptive reuse of historic or older buildings. • 7.67 Develop a program for mandatory recycling of construction waste at all construction sites that take delivery of dumpsters. • 7.56 Investigate wetland filtration systems as an alternative to traditional sewage treatment. • 7.22 Publicize pick-up services for pre-cycling, recycling and trash. • 7.22 Promote neighborhood composting centers. • 7.22 Encourage reduced use of packaging, especially for building materials. • 7.11 Ease restrictions on rainwater catchment systems. • 7.00 Investigate wastewater reclamation strategies for users such as golf courses. • Section 6 • 7.45 Publish articles and a regular newspaper column with information about sustainability. • 7.34 Develop classes for clean energy, gardening, agriculture, sustainability skills. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 284 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 17 Appendix What If Scenario (All Keepers, Sorted Descending) Top 25 in light blue 1. 8.55 Provide incentives for installation of solar-photovoltaic, solar-thermal, geothermal, wind, and other renewable-energy systems. 2. 8.44 Support sustainable forestry practices and protect existing trees, where appropriate. 3. 8.33 Replace incandescent lights with compact fluorescent lights or LEDs in buildings and street lights. 4. 8.33 Promote townhouse, cluster and mixed-use development, encouraging density and multi-modal transportation options. 5. 8.33 Establish a low-interest loan program for private initiatives that reduce energy consumption (e.g., weatherization, furnace improvement, renewable energy). 6. 8.33 Build all new buildings to at least a LEED Silver criterion (or a similar level in another green building standard). 7. 8.22 Purchase fuel-efficient and/or alternative-fuel vehicles when available and suitable. 8. 8.11 Require use of a standardized green-building point-system (e.g., LEED, Built Green) for permitting of construction and remodeling projects. 9. 8.11 Expand home-weatherization assistance programs for low-income residents. 10. 8.11 Develop a Smart Trips program to promote public transportation, ride- sharing, walking and biking. 11. 8.00 Require waste recycling. 12. 8.00 Renovate existing buildings to lessen energy consumption (e.g., insulation, windows), being mindful of Historic Preservation requirements when appropriate. 13. 8.00 Increase funding for public transportation. 14. 7.89 Use electric-vehicle or bicycles for government functions whenever possible (e.g., meter reading, building inspection). 15. 7.89 Regularly publish departmental carbon footprints and results of efforts to reduce them. 16. 7.89 Phase out low-efficiency and high-emission vehicles as quickly as possible. 17. 7.89 Install high-efficiency furnaces, variable-speed pumps and ultra-efficiency motors in all government facilities where replacement seems warranted. 18. 7.89 Encourage dis-assembly, deconstruction and recycling of structures to be demolished. 19. 7.88 Establish a reduced idling policy for fleet vehicles. 20. 7.78 Revise building codes to require greater insulation. 21. 7.78 Promote adaptive reuse of historic or older buildings. 22. 7.67 Subsidize bus passes for employees. 23. 7.67 Develop a program for mandatory recycling of construction waste at all construction sites that take delivery of dumpsters. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 285 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 18 24. 7.67 Develop a commuter-friendly transit plan and increase service where appropriate. 25. 7.67 Create pedestrian and bicycle-friendly communities and commercial areas (e.g., trails, pathways, rights-of-way on pavement). 26. 7.66 Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings and for stand-alone lighting on streets and parks. 27. 7.66 Install heat pumps, air or geothermal, as a first choice for heating. 28. 7.66 Encourage use of motion sensors for outdoor lighting. 29. 7.56 Promote use of fuel efficient, alternative-fuel and hybrid vehicles, including low-pollution scooters. 30. 7.56 Promote urban density through code revisions for items such as setbacks, lot orientation, and, height restrictions, 31. 7.56 Investigate wetland filtration systems as an alternative to traditional sewage treatment. 32. 7.45 Research options for natural, wetland wastewater treatment, particularly in new urban growth areas. 33. 7.45 Reduce total number of streetlights. 34. 7.45 Publish articles and a regular newspaper column with information about sustainability. 35. 7.44 Provide electric vehicle recharging stations at government offices, in residential areas, and in commercial crossroads. 36. 7.34 Use energy-saving lamps (e.g., led) for outdoor lighting. 37. 7.34 Purchase products with the lowest possible energy footprint, including embedded energy in production and transportation as well as lifecycle costs. 38. 7.34 Promote programs that offers carbon credits for timberlands. 39. 7.34 Increase bicycle-carrying capacity of buses by promoting portable bikes. 40. 7.34 Establish tree planting incentives for developments in locations where they do not block passive solar access, and disincentives for tree removal in established neighborhoods. 41. 7.34 Distribute "green building" advice booklets. 42. 7.34 Develop classes for clean energy, gardening, agriculture, sustainability skills. 43. 7.23 Promote energy auditing in homes and businesses. 44. 7.23 Implement existing City non-motorized transportation plan. 45. 7.23 Eliminate unnecessary or overly bright outdoor lighting (e.g., "full cut-off" fixtures). 46. 7.22 Publicize pick-up services for pre-cycling, recycling and trash. 47. 7.22 Promote the use of drought-tolerant native plants as well as tolerant non- natives. 48. 7.22 Promote neighborhood composting centers. 49. 7.22 Encourage teleconferencing for meetings. 50. 7.22 Encourage reduced use of packaging, especially for building materials. 51. 7.22 Build "complete streets" (including facilities for pedestrians and bicycles) on major arterials and other locations, where appropriate. 52. 7.22 Adopt reduced-idling ordinance. 53. 7.11 Ease restrictions on rainwater catchment systems. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 286 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 19 54. 7.11 Accept new, low-impact development ideas that are presented as "demonstration projects." 55. 7.00 Promote small and affordable housing by including surcharges on permits for residences greater than a specified size (e.g., 2400 square feet). 56. 7.00 Make farm produce stands an allowed use anywhere and not a conditional use only allowed in some zones and on certain types of streets. 57. 7.00 Investigate wastewater reclamation strategies for users such as golf courses. 58. 7.00 Institute parking fees in commercial centers, to encourage use of transit and other transportation modes. 59. 7.00 Install software or power strips to ensure that computers and other electrical equipment is turned off when not in use. 60. 7.00 Develop program for use of local produce in school menus. 61. 7.00 Develop a bounty for retiring a high-emission vehicle. 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 287 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 20 Section 1 Graphs Support sustainable forestry practices and prot... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Support sustainable forestry practices and protect ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Regularly publish departmental carbon footprint... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Regularly publish departmental carbon footprints an... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Research options for natural, wetland wastewate... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Research options for natural, wetland wastewater tr... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 288 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 21 Purchase products with the lowest possible ener... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Purchase products with the lowest possible energy f... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Accept new, low-impact development ideas that a... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Accept new, low-impact development ideas that are p... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install software or power strips to ensure that... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install software or power strips to ensure that com... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 27%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 289 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 22 Accept pervious paving methods for storm water ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Accept pervious paving methods for storm water mana... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use electronic rather than paper-based communic... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use electronic rather than paper-based communicatio... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 24%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use double-sided printing for all documents whe... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use double-sided printing for all documents when po... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.3 Variability 28%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 290 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 23 Form an internal committee to oversee the imple... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Form an internal committee to oversee the implement... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Invest in "green power," carbon offsets, and/or... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Invest in "green power," carbon offsets, and/or oth... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace inefficient pumps or modify how they ar... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace inefficient pumps or modify how they are us... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 26%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 291 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 24 Promote the installation and use of composting ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote the installation and use of composting toil... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Assure that software allows screen review of re... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Assure that software allows screen review of reques... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.0 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Prohibit use of public funds for purchase of wa... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.6 Variability 32%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Prohibit use of public funds for purchase of water ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 27%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 292 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 25 Give bidding preference to contractors who use ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Give bidding preference to contractors who use rene... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install heat exchangers at public shower facili... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install heat exchangers at public shower facilities. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.6 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Modify the city potable water system to elimina... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.1 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Modify the city potable water system to eliminate n... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 293 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 26 Prohibit electric vending machines on public pr... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.1 Variability 28%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Prohibit electric vending machines on public property. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.1 Variability 24%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Eliminate need to transport and store chlorine ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.1 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Eliminate need to transport and store chlorine for ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Celebrate the 4th of July without the use of fi... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 1.9 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Celebrate the 4th of July without the use of firewo... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.3 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 294 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 27 Build all new buildings to at least a LEED Silver c... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Build all new buildings to at least a LEED Silv... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace incandescent lights with compact fluorescen... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace incandescent lights with compact fluore... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Purchase fuel-efficient and/or alternative-fuel veh... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Purchase fuel-efficient and/or alternative-fuel... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 295 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 28 Renovate existing buildings to lessen energy consum... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Renovate existing buildings to lessen energy co... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Phase out low-efficiency and high-emission vehicles... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.3 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Phase out low-efficiency and high-emission vehi... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use electric-vehicle or bicycles for government fun... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use electric-vehicle or bicycles for government... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 296 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 29 Install high-efficiency furnaces, variable-speed pu... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.3 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install high-efficiency furnaces, variable-spee... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a reduced idling policy for fleet vehicles. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 29%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a reduced idling policy for fleet veh... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Subsidize bus passes for employees. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Subsidize bus passes for employees. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 297 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 30 Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildings a... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install photovoltaic panels on existing buildin... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 10%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install heat pumps, air or geothermal, as a first c... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install heat pumps, air or geothermal, as a fir... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage teleconferencing for meetings. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage teleconferencing for meetings. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 298 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 31 Develop alternative work schedules for employees, i... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop alternative work schedules for employee... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 24%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop policies for inter-departmental car sharing... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop policies for inter-departmental car sha... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Subsidize vanpools for employees if deemed cost eff... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Subsidize vanpools for employees if deemed cost... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 299 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 32 Perform regular route-efficiency analyses for routi... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Perform regular route-efficiency analyses for r... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage telecommuting for employees. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage telecommuting for employees. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Support the development of an energy-efficient comm... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 28%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Support the development of an energy-efficient ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 24%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 300 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 33 Install wind turbines on public property, where app... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install wind turbines on public property, where... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Adjust shipping schedules and capacities to reduce ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Adjust shipping schedules and capacities to red... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 11%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install roundabouts rather than new traffic signals... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Install roundabouts rather than new traffic sig... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 301 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 34 Educate employee unions to the need for more effici... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.1 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Educate employee unions to the need for more ef... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Have local neighborhoods adopt local parks to reduc... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 27%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Have local neighborhoods adopt local parks to r... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.2 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace mowers with grazing animals for park lawn m... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.6 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace mowers with grazing animals for park la... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.2 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 302 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 35 Reduce mowing of grass in parks. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 1.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Reduce mowing of grass in parks. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 28%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 303 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 36 Section 2 Graphs Develop a Smart Trips program to promote public tra... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a Smart Trips program to promote public... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Increase funding for public transportation. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Increase funding for public transportation. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a commuter-friendly transit plan and increa... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a commuter-friendly transit plan and in... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 8%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 304 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 37 Promote use of fuel efficient, alternative-fuel and... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote use of fuel efficient, alternative-fuel... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide electric vehicle recharging stations at gov... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide electric vehicle recharging stations at... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Increase bicycle-carrying capacity of buses by prom... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Increase bicycle-carrying capacity of buses by ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 305 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 38 Implement existing City non-motorized transportatio... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Implement existing City non-motorized transport... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Build "complete streets" (including facilities for ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Build "complete streets" (including facilities ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 26%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Adopt reduced-idling ordinance. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Adopt reduced-idling ordinance. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 24%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 306 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 39 Develop a bounty for retiring a high-emission vehicle. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a bounty for retiring a high-emission v... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Institute parking fees in commercial centers, to en... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Institute parking fees in commercial centers, t... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a comprehensive county-wide bicycle and ped... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a comprehensive county-wide bicycle and... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 307 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 40 Establish a low-interest loan program for private i... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a low-interest loan program for priva... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish and consistently enforce policies for bic... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish and consistently enforce policies for... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Implement a car/truck-sharing service. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Implement a car/truck-sharing service. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 308 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 41 Provide covered bicycle parking at commercial, scho... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide covered bicycle parking at commercial, ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 10%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use parking fees to discourage single occupancy veh... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use parking fees to discourage single occupancy... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Tax parking areas as part of the "land improvements... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Tax parking areas as part of the "land improvem... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 309 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 42 Retrofit diesel trucks with emission-reducing devices, vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Retrofit diesel trucks with emission-reducing d... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 310 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 43 Section 3 Graphs Provide incentives for installation of solar-photov... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 10%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide incentives for installation of solar-ph... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a low-interest loan program for private i... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 10%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a low-interest loan program for priva... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 26%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Require use of a standardized green-building point-... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.4 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Require use of a standardized green-building po... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 311 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 44 Expand home-weatherization assistance programs for ... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Expand home-weatherization assistance programs ... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 11%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Revise building codes to require greater insulation. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Revise building codes to require greater insula... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage use of motion sensors for outdoor lighting. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage use of motion sensors for outdoor lig... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 312 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 45 Reduce total number of streetlights. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Reduce total number of streetlights. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Distribute "green building" advice booklets. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Distribute "green building" advice booklets. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use energy-saving lamps (e.g., led) for outdoor lig... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Use energy-saving lamps (e.g., led) for outdoor... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 313 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 46 Promote energy auditing in homes and businesses. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote energy auditing in homes and businesses. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Eliminate unnecessary or overly bright outdoor ligh... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Eliminate unnecessary or overly bright outdoor ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Require sellers to provide current energy audit inf... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Require sellers to provide current energy audit... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 314 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 47 Expedite building permits for projects that reach a... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Expedite building permits for projects that rea... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop programs to improve, convert, or replace in... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop programs to improve, convert, or replac... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Implement a "Dark-Sky" ordinance to reduce nighttim... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 27%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Implement a "Dark-Sky" ordinance to reduce nigh... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 315 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 48 Promote the use of efficient wood burning heating a... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote the use of efficient wood burning heati... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace all two-stroke engines with four-stroke eng... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 27%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Replace all two-stroke engines with four-stroke... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide information on carbon reduction strategies ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide information on carbon reduction strateg... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 316 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 49 Revise building codes to allow for greater heights ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Revise building codes to allow for greater heig... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Create awards for businesses and developments with ... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Create awards for businesses and developments w... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Eliminate use of gas-powered leaf blowers. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 28%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Eliminate use of gas-powered leaf blowers. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 317 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 50 Section 4 Graphs Promote townhouse, cluster and mixed-use develo... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote townhouse, cluster and mixed-use developmen... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Create pedestrian and bicycle-friendly communit... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Create pedestrian and bicycle-friendly communities ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote urban density through code revisions fo... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote urban density through code revisions for it... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 318 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 51 Establish tree planting incentives for developm... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish tree planting incentives for developments... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote programs that offers carbon credits for... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote programs that offers carbon credits for tim... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote the use of drought-tolerant native plan... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote the use of drought-tolerant native plants a... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 29%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 319 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 52 Promote small and affordable housing by includi... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote small and affordable housing by including s... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Make farm produce stands an allowed use anywher... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Make farm produce stands an allowed use anywhere an... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop program for use of local produce in sch... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop program for use of local produce in school ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 27%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 320 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 53 Encourage the planting of rain gardens and othe... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage the planting of rain gardens and other "L... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 22%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Restrict development on land that is ideally su... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Restrict development on land that is ideally suited... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage more street plantings and home garden... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage more street plantings and home garden plo... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 26%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 321 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 54 Support biogas production from manure. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Support biogas production from manure. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide space for farmer's markets and produce ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide space for farmer's markets and produce stands. vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Reduce and/or eliminate parking requirements fo... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 17%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Reduce and/or eliminate parking requirements for de... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 322 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 55 Promote worm bins and composting systems for th... vsFeasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote worm bins and composting systems for the fo... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Support a cooperative "mobile meat processing p... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Support a cooperative "mobile meat processing plant... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide incentives for contractors to use pervi... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Provide incentives for contractors to use pervious ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 323 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 56 Develop in-school food production programs for ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop in-school food production programs for stud... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Prohibit outdoor burning. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Prohibit outdoor burning. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Allow and promote the use of city rights-of-way... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Allow and promote the use of city rights-of-way for... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.7 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 324 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 57 Section 5 Graphs Require waste recycling. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Require waste recycling. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.2 Variability 23%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage dis-assembly, deconstruction and recy... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage dis-assembly, deconstruction and recyclin... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote adaptive reuse of historic or older bui... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote adaptive reuse of historic or older buildings. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.0 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 325 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 58 Develop a program for mandatory recycling of co... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop a program for mandatory recycling of constr... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Investigate wetland filtration systems as an al... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Investigate wetland filtration systems as an altern... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Publicize pick-up services for pre-cycling, rec... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.1 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Publicize pick-up services for pre-cycling, recycli... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 326 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 59 Promote neighborhood composting centers. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Promote neighborhood composting centers. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 25%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage reduced use of packaging, especially ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Encourage reduced use of packaging, especially for ... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Ease restrictions on rainwater catchment systems. vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.9 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Ease restrictions on rainwater catchment systems. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 28%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 327 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 60 Investigate wastewater reclamation strategies f... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Investigate wastewater reclamation strategies for u... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish compost credits for payment of yard w... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.7 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish compost credits for payment of yard waste... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 11%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a home pick-up pre-cycling program fo... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Establish a home pick-up pre-cycling program for it... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.0 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 328 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 61 Develop better incentives for small garbage con... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop better incentives for small garbage contain... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 20%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 329 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 62 Section 6 Graphs Publish articles and a regular newspaper column... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 4.6 Variability 14%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Publish articles and a regular newspaper column wit... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop classes for clean energy, gardening, ag... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.8 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop classes for clean energy, gardening, agricu... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Coordinate curriculum of sustainability course ... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.6 Variability 21%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Coordinate curriculum of sustainability course offe... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.9 Variability 15%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 330 November 23, 2011 Potential Measures 63 Develop civics and environmental classes on sus... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.2 Variability 18%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop civics and environmental classes on sustain... vsBenefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.1 Variability 24%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop lists for student projects on sustainab... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.3 Variability 16%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Develop lists for student projects on sustainability. vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 2.3 Variability 13%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Create banners and signs promoting sustainabili... vs Feasibility Number of responsesResults summary (Average 3.4 Variability 30%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) Create banners and signs promoting sustainability p... vs Benefit Number of responsesResults summary (Average 1.7 Variability 19%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Abs. -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (9 responses) 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 331 Appendix H Letter Extending the Climate Action Committee 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 332 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 333 12/11/2019 PC Agenda Packet Pg. 334